Instituto de Psicologia Paranormal - Reconocido con Personería Jurídica en IGJ bajo Resolución No. 1167/04 Ley 22.315 (MJS y DDHH) Entidad inscripta en el Registro Nacional de Organizaciones no-Gubernamentales (CENOC) No. 16372.
About up

English Version

 

 

 

Alejandro Parra´s Bio

The psychologist Alejandro Parra received his Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees from the Universidad Abierta Interamericana (www.vaneduc.edu.ar/uai), where he is now a teacher and associated researcher. He received his PhD in psychology from the Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales (www.uces.edu.ar). His doctoral dissertation, which was conducted under the auspices of Dr. David Maldavsky (his major advisor) and three other committee members (Dr. H. Losinno, Dr. A. Cayssials, and Dr. B. Nante) was based on the theme, Percepciones Imposibles: Alucinaciones y otras experiencias anómalas [Impossible Perceptions: Hallucinations and Other Anomalous Experiences]. He is licensed in Buenos Aires, Argentina (Mat. # 32.358), where he serves as a psychotherapist in general clinical psychological practice in the Clinical Area of the Institute of Paranormal Psychology. He conducts therapy groups and uses an historical approach in his continued research into parapsychology, dreamwork, and mediumship. In a counseling setting he also conducts workshops with psychics and mediums on their paranormal/spiritual experiences. His clinical research is based on cognitive-experiential and humanistic/Rogerian-oriented approaches with groups of people who have had paranormal experiences and dreams.

As an Associate Professor, Parra teaches three courses at the Faculty of Psychology of the Universidad Abierta Interamericana: Teorías y Sistemas Psicológicos [Psychological Theories and Systems], Estadística Aplicada a la Psicología [Applied Statistics in Psychology], and Psicoterapía [Psychotherapy]. He is also conducting an accredited free course: Psicología Paranormal: Cómo orientar a personas con experiencias paranormales [Paranormal Psychology: How to Counsel People who have had Paranormal Experiences] during the first semester at the Universidad Abierta Interamericana in Buenos Aires.

Parra is a full member and International Liaison of the Parapsychology Association; an International Affiliate and International Liaison of the Parapsychology Foundation; and an associated member of the Society for Scientific Exploration for Argentina. He is also a member and adherent of a dozen other institutes of parapsychology in Europe and such Latin American countries as Brazil, Chile and Mexico.

Alejandro Parra has attended conventions, symposia and conferences on psychology, psychotherapy and parapsychology in a dozen cities such as Santiago (Chile), Halifax (Canada), Edinburgh (Scotland), Stockholm (Sweden), Freiburg (Germany), Curitiba, Recife, and São Paulo (Brazil), Durham, New York, and San Diego (US). Parra has also given invited talks on parapsychology and workshops on dreamwork in many institutes and centers such as Stichting Het Johan Borgmanfonds (Amsterdam), Fondazione Biblioteca Bozzano de Boni (Bologna), Koestler Parapsychology Unit (Edinburgh), Sociedad Española de Parapsicología (Madrid), Facultad Libre de Altos Estudios Paracientíficos (Barcelona), Institut Métapsychique International (Paris), BILYAY Foundation (Istanbul), and Österreichische Gesellschaft für Parapsychologie (Vienna), as well as at faculties of psychology at the universities of Barcelona and Granada (Spain), at the Facultades Integradas “Espírita” of Curitiba (Brazil), and the universities of Lima, Alas Peruanas and Inca Garcilazo (Peru). As a lecturer, he has presented hundreds of talks on psychology, parapsychology and clinical psychology in Argentina.

Parra has authored a number of books, including Historia de la parapsicología en la Argentina [History of Parapsychology in Argentina](Author, 1990; see review), Fenómenos paranormales [Paranormal Phenomena] (Kier, 2003; see review), Sueños: Como interpretar sus mensajes [Dreams: How to Understand their Messages] (Kier, 2005; see review), Psicología de las experiencias paranormales [Psychology of Paranormal Experiences] (Akadia, 2006; see German review); El mundo oculto de los sueños [The Hidden World of Dreams] (Kier, 2009; see review); and the forthcoming books Poderes de la mente [Powers of the Mind] (Corona Borealis, 2010) and ¿Qué es … la sensibilidad psíquica? [What  is … Psychic Sensibility] (Deva´s, 2010).

He also edited three Proceedings of the Encuentros Psi [Psi Encounters] on such topics as Actas del Primer Encuentro Psi 1994: Nuevas dimensiones en parapsicología [Proceedings of the First Psi Encounter: New Dimensions in Parapsychology] (Instituto de Psicología Paranormal, 1994); Actas del Segundo Encuentro Psi 1996 [Proceedings of the Second Psi Encounter] (Instituto de Psicología Paranormal, 1996); and Actas del Tercer Encuentro Psi 1998: Conciencia y psi como fronteras de exploración científica. [Proceedings of the Third Psi Encounter: Consciousness and Psi as Frontiers of Scientific Exploration] (Instituto de Psicología Paranormal, 1998). With Juan Manuel Corbetta, he co-edited the e-book Imágenes de lo oculto [Images of the Occult], which was published by the Institute of Paranormal Psychology.

In addition, Parra has published a number of articles in peer-reviewed journals such as Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal, Anuario Brasileiro de Parapsicología, Ciencias del Espíritu, and Psi Comunicación (in Spanish); Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, Australian Journal of Parapsychology, International Journal of Parapsychology, Psypioneer, The Paranormal Review,  Journal of Parapsychology, and Journal of American Society for Psychical Research (in English);  and Luce e Ombra, Quaderni di Parapsicologia, and Grenzgebiete der Wissenschaft (in Italian and German, respectively).

He has also published in several non-parapsychological journals, notably the Journal of Mental Imagery and Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Others include Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, Revista de Investigación en Psicología, Límite: Revista de Filosofía y Psicología, Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, Subjetividad y Procesos Cognitivos, Revista Internacional de Psicología, Persona, Revista Psico-USF, Revista Liberabit, Actualidad Psicológica, Acta Psiquiátrica y Psicológica de América Latina, Alcmeón: Revista Argentina de Clínica Neuropsiquiátrica, Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación Psicológica, Revista Interamericana de Psicología, Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, Todo es Historia, and El Otro: Revista de Psicoanálisis (all in Spanish). In addition, Parra has worked for many years as a journalist for such paranormal magazines as Año/Cero, Más Allá and Enigmas (Spain), as well as Sexto Sentido (Brazil).

Subir

Institute of Paranormal Psychology (IPP)

Argentina has experienced productive parapsychological activity, for short periods of time between 1940 and the beginnings of the 1990s, at the hands of such researchers as Jose Fernandez, J. Ricardo Musso, Orlando Canavesio, Naum Kreiman and Enrique Novillo Pauli. Although Argentinean psychology is diverse in clinical matters, parapsychology lags behind due to a lack of research. Parapsychology is not, for example, included in university psychology curricula, and the IPP´s work is carried out almost exclusively in the Buenos Aires area.

The Institute of Paranormal Psychology (IPP) was established in 1994 as an educational center dedicated to the scientific study of paranormal/anomalous events. Its focus is on experimental, clinical and empirical research, plus the collection and publication of case reports dealing with parapsychological experiences. As a non-profit research and educational institute (MJS and DDHH Res. # 1167/04 and CENOC Res. # 16372/08), the IPP has been recognized as a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). From an educational viewpoint, the IPP teaches a basic program in parapsychology, aimed at the general public, constituting a comprehensive introduction to the field. It also offers a second program at a high level in parapsychology aimed at undergraduate students. Enrollment is limited, and classes are small to permit individual attention. The controversies that surround psi research and the implications of its findings for science and society are also prominent topics in these programs. The work of the IPP is supported by students’ fees and by the income from an endowment. There are many “study groups” concentrating on different topics in the field −historical, educational, clinical, theoretical, and experimental/methodological.

Between 1990 and 2004, the IPP published fifty-four issues of a peer-reviewed quarterly journal, the Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal [Argentine Journal of Paranormal Psychology]. The journal’s impact on many young parapsychologists in several Spanish-speaking countries was impressive. However, the RAPP was discontinued for financial reasons. Subsequently, in 2006, the IPP inaugurated a new on-line publication, the E-Bulletin Psi, of which thirteen issues have been published to-date (see http://www.alipsi.com.ar/publicaciones_ipp.asp to download back issues).

The IPP’s main source of pride is its parapsychological library, which contains around 2500 books, 12,000 issues of academic journals and popular magazines, and thousands of files of articles in non-parapsychological journals in the scientific mainstream. It is the most important collection of its kind in Argentina and even in Latin America. The IPP also hosts about two thousands hours’ worth of VHS and DVD tapes on parapsychological and related topics. The Agencia Latinoamericana de Información Psi (ALIPsi) is an internet-based database of parapsychology references and on-line information related to the Spanish-speaking literature (www.alipsi.com.ar). The data reside in a computer, because ALIPsi covers the bulk of parapsychology articles in Spanish-language journals from 1900 to-date. It also offers advisory service in bibliographical investigations to undergraduate students and journalists.

Currently, the IPP has eight active members, most of them psychologists: Juan Carlos Argibay, Juan Gimeno, Iván Lépes, Juan Manuel Corbetta, Fabiana Savall, Daniel Gómez Montanelli, Jorge Villanueva, and Alejandro Parra. IPP members have obtained a dozen grants from the Fundação Bial in Porto, Portugal, between the years of 1998 and 2009, which have allowed them to conduct studies of ESP in the ganzfeld, psychometrics (“token object” effect), psychomantheum, and psychological and personality areas of anomalous/paranormal experiences. The IPP has hosted several conventions and meetings of experts, bringing together researchers from many countries, such as Zdenek Rejdak, Andrei Lee, Stanley Krippner, Wim Kramer, Erlendur Haraldsson, and others.

During the 1990s, the IPP appointed a clinical psychologist (Daniel Gómez Montanelli, DGM) to provide, as part of his job, information and some counseling to people who called the Institute for help. In 1998, Gómez Montanelli and Alejandro Parra received a grant from the Bial Foundation to carry out a research project aimed at recording people’s reactions to disturbing psi experiences and to explore their associated emotional and intellectual processing.

During the last twenty years the IPP has achieved much. For instance, Alejandro Parra introduced parapsychology into the university –slowly but increasingly– by using other names such as “paranormal psychology.” Parra says: “There is no difference between paranormal psychology and parapsychology, but the change of terms was introduced because of the increased confusion between proper parapsychology and the activities of charlatans (many of whom have abused the term by approaching it as ‘pop’ parapsychology). In Argentina, many people believe that the term parapsychologist is equivalent to psychic.” Terms such as “anomalistic psychology” or “border areas of psychology” are seen in Latin American countries as analogous to “abnormal” or “marginal” psychology, respectively; that is, these terms are not integrated into mainstream science or scientific psychology. Paranormal is really the best term, because the “para” prefix is not associated with pathological, abnormal, marginal or pseudoscientific concepts. At the same time, it is helpful to recognize the traditional and historical relationship with “parapsychology” as regards ESP, PK and afterdeath/survival research-related topics. “Paranormal experiences" are an exciting topic for many people –in both popular and professional groups– in terms of dealing with theoretically controversial apparitional/haunting, out-of-body, near-death experiences and other paranormal/anomalous ans spiritual experiences.

Finally, the IPP maintains SIPsi v.3.0, which is a computerized bibliographic database on parapsychology and related consciousness disciplines. The aim of the SIPsi v.3.0 is to in­clude a bibliographic citation and/or abstract of all books or articles (scholarly or popular), theses, chapters, conference proceedings papers, or separate reports or monographs on para­psychology or related consciousness studies.

In November 2006, the National Institute for History Research was the stage for Images of the Occult, a Spiritualist photographic exhibition, which brought together professionals –two of them from outside Argentina– who, for two weeks, attended a number of conferences and panels such as psychic/spiritist photography, psychomanteum, ITC, mediumship, survival and super-psi discussion, and apparitional experiences. These were presented and discussed by historical and cultural researchers, anthropologists, physicians, psychologists, and other paranormalists and open-minded skeptics who were invited as speakers. The exhibition was also supported by the Ministry of Culture of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires.

AP´s Biographies on-line

http://www.pflyceum.org/125.html

http://www.metapsychique.org/Alejandro-Parra.html (French version)

http://www.parapsych.org/members/a_parra.html

Subir

Journal Articles (English abstracts)

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2010). Unusual perceptual experiences and ESP under psychomanteum stimulation: Imagery/hallucination proneness and schizotypal personality measures. Australian Journal of Parapsycholog (in press).

Although psychomanteums are not normally employed to seek ESP information, it may be that it is psi-conducive, which were originally designed to facilitate reunion experiences with deceased individuals. There is also a relationship between positive schizotypy, hypnagogic experiences and imagery abilities and it has been hypothesised that they relate to psi scores. This study aimed to address differences in psi performance between low/high unusual perceptual experiences and unusual thinking styles. One hundred twenty eight participants were asked to verbalize his mental impressions as much as possible after the psychomanteum stimulation. A number of positive results were found. Although it is natural to suppose that visual mental imagery is important for both a psychomanteum condition and ESP, participants who scored low on visual imagery tended to exhibit psi-hitting (Fisher’s exact test p = .078, one-tailed; Phi = .012). However participants who scored higher on visual imagery (Fisher’s exact test p = .03, one-tailed; Phi = .045) and tactile hallucination (Fisher’s exact test p = .02, one-tailed; Phi = .030) tended to psi hit. We also found a significant relationship between Magical Ideation and ESP scores (Fisher’s exact test p = .01, one-tailed; Phi = .023), but there were no significant effects between ESP scores and Cognitive-perceptual (Fisher’s exact test p = 0.56, one-tailed). Given that suggestion may have a causal role in the experience of anomalous perception, it is plausible that the incidence of psi in the psychomanteum is a function of explicit suggestions for such experiences presented during the facilitation procedure, which may be augmented by restricted stimulation and dissociation.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2010). Aura vision as a hallucinatory experience: Its relation to fantasy proneness, absorption, and other perceptual maladjustments Journal of Mental Imagery, 34 (3&4) (in press).

The phenomenon of aura vision has a long tradition in the relig­ious, occult, and psychical research litera­tures. Perceptual illusions, afterimages, and contrast effects have been offered as scientific explanations for aura reports. Among a sample of 586 undergraduates, it was predicted that those who reported an aura experience would score higher than nonexperiencers on the Betts Vividness of Imagery Scale (visual and tactile), Barrett’s Hallucinations Questionnaire (visual and tactile), the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (fantasy proneness), the Tellegen Absorption Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the cognitive-perceptual subscale of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. All the predictions were significantly confirmed except those concerning visual and tactile hallucinations. It was concluded that persons who “see” auras are likely to have a rich imaginal life.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2010) Out-of-body experiences and hallucinatory experiences: A psychological approach. Imagination, Cognition and Personality (in press).

In an out-of-body experience (OBE), the “self”, or center of awareness, seems to temporarily occupy a position spa­tially remote from one’s body. In support of previous studies, undergraduate students reporting OBEs (N = 132) showed a higher level of cognitive-perceptual schizotypy, absorption, dissociation, fantasy and hallucination proneness, and visual imagery than did non-OBErs (N = 516). Absorption and cognitive-perceptual schizotypy were the best discriminators for visual and tactile hallucinations (p < .001). The results support a dissociation model of OBEs. Some persons reported beneficial adaptive effects from their OBEs. Despite the widespread occurrence of anomalous perceptual experiences, including OBEs, in the general population, the term hallucination still has pejorative overtones. the present results are in agreement with other studies in which measures of fantasy­ proneness seemed to be successful predictors of psychic phenomena (Myers et al., 1983; Wilson & Barber, 1982). Such findings suggest that OBEs may be related to fantasy proneness and cognitive-perceptual schizotypy, which are correlated with each other. Future research should focus on the role of different types of OBEs in personality and cognitive processing.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ESPINOZA PAUL, LUIS (2010). Nocturnal hallucinatory experiences and paranormal/anomalous experiences: Exploring links with schizotypy, dissociation, absorption and fantasy proneness in Argentine and Peruvian groups. European Journal of Parapsychology (in press).

A number of studies have demonstrated high prevalence rates of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations in the general population, such as sensations of floating, seeing lights, hearing noises, being called, and being touched. There are a number of well docu­mented cases of ESP and crisis apparitions that have also occurred during the hypnagogic/hypnopompic states, such as forms of ESP, telepathy, and out-of-body experiences. Other formal links between paranormal or anomalous experiences may be seen in the positive relationship consistently found between HG/HP and dissociational/absorption experiences and fantasy proneness, which correlated significantly higher on schizotypy and perceptual aberration, without suffering from the more unpleasant symptoms. Participants who have HG/HP experiences have a higher capacity for (1) schizotypy proneness and cognitive-perceptual schizotypy, and (2) dissociation, absorption, and fantasy proneness than non­-experients. A total of 648 undergraduate psychology students from Argentina and 214 from Peru were tested. The results suggest that absorption and cognitive-perceptual aspects of schizotypy, in particular, are essential features of persons with HG/HP experiences. The results, which suggest that persons who experience HG/HP are likely to have a rich imaginal life, are consistent with other studies that have found measures of absorption to be successful predictors of psychic phenomena.

PARRA ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA JORGE (2010). Unusual perceptual experiences and ESP under psychomanteum stimulation: Imagery/hallucination proneness and schizotypal personality measures. Australian Journal of Parapsychology (in press).

Although psychomanteums are not normally employed to seek ESP information, it may be that it is psi-conducive, which were originally designed to facilitate reunion experiences with deceased individuals. There is also a relationship between positive schizotypy, hypnagogic experiences and imagery abilities and it has been hypothesised that they relate to psi scores. This study aimed to address differences in psi performance between low/high unusual perceptual experiences and unusual thinking styles. One hundred twenty eight participants were asked to verbalize his mental impressions as much as possible. A number of positive results were found. Although it is natural to suppose that visual mental imagery is important for both a psychomanteum condition and ESP, participants who scored low on visual imagery tended to exhibit psi-hitting (Fisher’s exact test p= .078, one-tailed; Phi = .012). However participants who scored higher on visual imagery (Fisher’s exact test p = .03, one-tailed; Phi = .045) and tactilehallucination (Fisher’s exact test p = .02, one-tailed; Phi = .030) tended to psi hit. We also found a significant relationship between Magical Ideation and ESP scores (Fisher’s exact test p = .01, one-tailed; Phi = .023), but there were no significant effects between ESP scores and Cognitive-perceptual (Fisher s exact test p = 0.56, one-tailed). Given that suggestion may have a causal role in the experience of anomalous perceptions, it is plausible that the incidence of psi in the psychomanteum is a function of explicit suggestions for such experiences presented during the facilitation procedure, which may be augmented by restricted stimulation and dissociation.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ESPINOZA PAUL, LUIS (2010). Nocturnal hallucinatory experiences and paranormal/anomalous experiences: Exploring links with schizotypy, dissociation, absorption and fantasy proneness in argentine and peruvian groups. European Journal of Parapsychology (in press).

A number of studies have demonstrated high prevalence rates of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations in the general population, such as sensations of floating, seeing lights, hearing noises, being called, and being touched. There are a number of well docu­mented cases of ESP and crisis apparitions that have also occurred during the hypnagogic/hypnopompic states, such as forms of ESP, telepathy, and out-of-body experiences. Other formal links between paranormal or anomalous experiences may be seen in the positive relationship consistently found between HG/HP and dissociational/absorption experiences and fantasy proneness, which correlated significantly higher on schizotypy and perceptual aberration, without suffering from the more unpleasant symptoms. Participants who have HG/HP experiences have a higher capacity for (1) schizotypy proneness and cognitive-perceptual schizotypy, and (2) dissociation, absorption, and fantasy proneness than non­-experients. A total of 648 undergraduate psychology students from Argentina and 214 from Peru were tested. The results suggest that absorption and cognitive-perceptual aspects of schizotypy, in particular, are essential features of persons with HG/HP experiences. The results, which suggest that persons who experience HG/HP are likely to have a rich imaginal life, are consistent with other studies that have found measures of absorption to be successful predictors of psychic phenomena.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ESPINOZA PAUL, LUIS (2010). Extrasensorial experiences and hallucinatory experience: Comparision between three non-clinical samples linked with a psychological measures. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (in press).

An extrasensory experience is one in which it appears that the experient's mind has acquired information directly, that is, seemingly without either the mediation of the recognized human senses or the processes of, logical inference. The "extrasensory" in extrasensory experience therefore pertains to appearances and not necessarily to reality, whereas the "extrasensory" in extrasensory perception refers to the nature of a hypothesized paranormal reality. A number of specific hypotheses are tested: Three samples (Argentine, Peruvian and Pucallpa) of participants who have report Precognitive dreams and Extrasensorial experiences have a higher capacity for (1) auditive, visual, tactile hallucination, (2) schizotypy proneness, (3) neuroticism, and (4) dissociation/absorption/fantasy proneness than non­-experients. A total of 648 Argentine, 214 Peruvian and 184 Pucallpa natives students were tested using six scales: Hallucination Experiences Scale, Schizotypical Personality Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Dissociation Experiences Scale, Tellegen Absorption Scale, and Creative Experiences Questionnaire. The results showed a higher level of cognitive-perceptual, schizotypy, absorption, dissociation, fantasy and hallucination proneness in experients than in non-experients. The findings also suggest that especially cognitive-perceptual aspects of schizotypy are essential features of persons who had Precognitve dreams and Extrasensory Experiences; also suggesting that the dissociational model of extrasensorial experiences, which assumed that under­lying dissociative process such as absorption and fantasy proneness are associated with ESP Experiences and Precognitive dreams.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2010). Out-of-body experiences and hallucinatory experiences: A psychological approach. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality (in press).

In an out-of-body experience (OBE), the “self”, or center of awareness, seems to temporarily occupy a position spa­tially remote from one’s body. In support of previous studies, undergraduate students reporting OBEs (N = 132) showed a higher level of cognitive-perceptual schizotypy, absorption, dissociation, fantasy and hallucination proneness, and visual imagery than did non-OBErs (N = 516). Absorption and cognitive-perceptual schizotypy were the best discriminators for visual and tactile hallucinations (p < .001). The results support a dissociation model of OBEs. Some persons reported beneficial adaptive effects from their OBEs. Despite the widespread occurrence of anomalous perceptual experiences, including OBEs, in the general population, the term hallucination still has pejorative overtones. the present results are in agreement with other studies in which measures of fantasy­ proneness seemed to be successful predictors of psychic phenomena (Myers et al., 1983; Wilson & Barber, 1982). Such findings suggest that OBEs may be related to fantasy proneness and cognitive-perceptual schizotypy, which are correlated with each other. Future research should focus on the role of different types of OBEs in personality and cognitive processing.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2009). Psychics vs. Non-Psychics in “Face-to-Face” and “Remote” Token-Object Reading Conditions. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 9 (1), pp. 57-69

Psychic reading is a method used to foretell the future of an individual. However, cold reading is a non-paranormal technique used by many self-claimed psychics and mediums to determine details about another person in order to convince them that the reader knows much more about a subject than he or she actually does. We wanted to explore some strategies for using and appraising the so-called “tokenobject” effect common in psychic reading. We planned to follow the design of our earlier research using a psychometry procedure with a sample of ordinary people (non-psychics) and a sample of self-claimed psychics. One of the aims of the study was to determine if the ‘psychics’ participants could give impressions while touching the objects of two sitters. The experiment was introduced to the participants by telling them that two different conditions, “face-to-face” and “remote” psychometry, were being undertaken using a physical object as psi stimuli. The sample consisted of 83 participants. We concluded that those participants who claimed to have psychometry psi ability (“Psychic” group) showed greater psi hitting than “Non-Psychics” in both conditions (“remote” and “face-to-face”). Because face-to-face readings allow for sensory cues, no firm conclusion of “genuine” psi can be justified from such an experiment. Therefore we should treat this significant finding with caution.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2009). An experimental study with ordinary people for testing “sacred” objects through psi detection. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 73.1 (894), 41-49.

(No abstract given). The term “psychometry” refers to a type of anomalous cognition (or ESP) which permits a psychic or “sensitive” to receive impressions using a physical object as an inductor or instrument for information. This confers some methodological advantages over a face-to-face “psychic reading” performed by a psychic consultant or through control spirits by spiritualist mediums in which some sensory channels may be available to allow fraud or unwitting self-deception. A quantitative evaluation of the statements of a psychic aims to determine if these statements are correct more often than can be expected by chance. Although a quantitative evaluation is the best way to obtain an objective assessment of the value of the psychic’s impressions, it provides only a limited view of the data. Relationships between apparently unrelated statements, for instance of an emotional nature, can provide a very apt characterization of the target person or the situation, but might not lend themselves well to an objective quantitative analysis.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2008). Reading Faces: An experimental exploration of psychometry using photographs and names. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 8(1),  pp. 47-57.

Psychometry describes a type of anomalous cognition which permits a psychic to experience such impressions using a physical object. A number of psychics have gained a reputation as psychic detectives using such things as photographs, a town map, or a piece of clothing. In fact, many people seem to have a high opinion of the abilities of psychics, but a person.s face is an important source of information for identifying others, and conveys significant social information, probably due to its important role in the psychological processes involved in social interaction. The aim of the present study was to compare a group of ordinary people (non-psychics) with selfclaimed psychics in order to determine if participants were capable of distinguishing between living and dead people from photographs of same. The sample consisted of 169 participants divided into two groups: psychics. (N = 74) and .non-psychics. (N = 95). No significant differences were found. Those participants who claimed to have psychometric ability (that is, were able to pick up impressions from an object by being in physical contact with it) neither obtained psi hitting, nor demonstrated greater variability in their psi hits. One possible interpretation would be that some of the participants in this group had difficulties with correctly interpreting the psi signal.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2008). Aura vision as a hallucinatory experience: Its relation to fantasy proneness, absorption, and other perceptual maladjustments. En S. Sherwood (Ed.), Proceedings of the 51st Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 166-175). West Downs Centre, The University of Winchester: Winchester, England.

Aura vision has a long tradition in the relig­ious, occult, and psychical research litera­tures. Perceptual illusions, afterimages, and contrast effects have been offered as scientific explanations for aura reports. Among a sample of 586 undergraduates, it was predicted that those who reported an aura vision experience would score higher than nonexperiencers on the Betts Vividness of Imagery Scale (visual and tactile), Barrett’s Hallucinations Questionnaire (visual and tactile), the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (measuring fantasy proneness), the Tellegen Absorption Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the cognitive-perceptual subscale of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. All the predictions were significantly confirmed except those concerning visual and tactile hallucinations. It was concluded that persons who “see” auras are likely to have a rich imaginal life.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2007). “Token-object” effect and medical diagnosis: An experimental study. En J.Palmer (Ed.), Proceedings of the 50th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 95-102). Holiday Inn Hotel Halifax, NS, Canadá.

Some psychics and healers claim to obtain impressions of body sensations, visual images of organ dysfunctions, or an “inner knowing”. However, there are few reports of quantitatively evaluated studies with psychics. They sometimes perform “psychometry”, which is defined as an anomalous cognition system, specifically the ability to get “impressions” from objects. Usually it is described as a type of knowledge which allows a psychic or sensitive to receive impressions using a physical object as an inductor or instrument. A series of psychometry-based experimental sessions was designed. The aim was to explore if there is a significant difference between psychics and nonpsychics. One hundred fifty participants (M age = 45.85; SD= 12.29) who reported personal experiences of psi were split into two groups, persons claiming ESP experiences but no abilities, or “nonpsychics” (N= 88) and persons claiming ESP skills as well as experiences, or “psychics” (N= 62). Four adult volunteers who suffered from medically diagnosed diseases (i.e. diabetes mellitus, hernia hiatal, osteoarthritis, and varicose veins) acted as target persons (TPs). They delivered personal objects (a comb, handkerchief, hair brooch, or billfold), which were coded and recoded blind by both experimenters. Instructions asked participants to describe the symptoms in non-technical language. Each participant received four pairs of objects (target and control) to be “touched”. They performed four trials of psychic diagnosis of the TPs, who remained unidentified. Although both groups combined scored significantly above chance (p = .01), there was only slight support for the claim that the “psychics”(p = .03) scored higher than the nonpsychics ( p = .08) Although neither group obtained highly significant results, high variability was found; it was in a positive direction for the psychics and the negative direction for the nonpsychics (p < .05). It appears that psychic diagnosis relates to perceptions of “information” in and around TPs, and that these may be difficult to translate into physical diagnoses. The psychics and healers were also not trained in medical terminology, anatomy or physiology, and therefore may have had difficulties providing impressions specific to anatomical structures and quantifiable in conventional terminology.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2007). Comparing psychics and non-psychics through a “token-object” forced choise ESP test. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 71.2(887), 80-90.

We use the term “psychic” with reference to the result of activities that provide information not known by normal means at the time. We designed a series of psychometry-based experimental ESP research which allowed us to explore new strategies for using and appraising the “token-object” effect. Psychometry describes a type of knowledge (or extrasensory perception, ESP) which permits a psychic or sensitive to receive impressions about a person or event using a physical object as inductor or instrument. The aim was to explore if there is a significant difference between “psychic” and “non-psychic” people as measured on an extrasensorial experiences and abilities questionnaire. Seventy-four participants (age range 18-78; Mean= 48.23; SD= 14.53) were recruited through media advertisements. Tests instructions were given both to the participants and to six target persons (volunteers who carried identical objects with them for fifteen days). The experimenters employed blind coding and recoding procedures, and let the participants touch the objects to obtain impressions. Six trials were completed. On basis of their results, participants were then divided into two groups: the psychic, “ESP skilled” group (N= 44) and the non-psychic, “ESP experients” (N= 30). The psychic group (ESP skilled) scored higher psi-hitting than the non-psychic group (ESP experients), who scored at the level of mean chance expectation. A significant difference between the two groups was also found, in a positive direction for the ESP skilled (z= 1.73; p= .041, one-tailed). It can be concluded that those participants claiming an ESP ability tended to obtain higher psi-hitting in the forced-choice response test (using a token-object) than those claiming only ESP experiences. Data analysis revealed high variability between the two groups. Participants who claimed ESP abilities generally obtained higher psi-hitting, and among the participants who claimed ESP experiences, some scored high psi-hitting, others high psi-missing.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2006). ESP under the ganzfeld, in contrast with the induction of relaxation as a psi-conducive state. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 6(2), 167-186.

Ganzfeld stimulation is associated to an increase of attention to internal imagery. Investigators have suggested the association to develop an “experimental–hypnagogic” technique to facilitate the study of hypnagogic imagery, an association such as the ganzfeld technique. This experiment carried forth a telepathy–focused, non-ganzfeld condition and compared the findings to a psi conducive ganzfeld technique. One hundred thirty-eight participants attended two trials of GESP at the Institute of Paranormal Psychology, at Buenos Aires. The majority of the participants (93.5%) reported personal experiences which suggest psi. The first author (AP) was the experimenter and the second author (JV) was the unaware sender to the entire sample. Two scales were administered before and another (Sargent Questionnaire) after the ganzfeld session to evaluate mental activity, corporal changes, pleasant experiences and change of consciousness state. A CD–R contained 3,500 high–resolution color pictures was used as image-targets. Also, ganzfeld and non-ganzfeld condition were counter-balanced. We would conclude that this experi­ment offered some support to the claim that ganzfeld stimulation is psi conducive; in the case we would find a significant difference between both tests condition, in a positive direction to the Ganzfeld condition (p< .016). The difference between both conditions was also significant (expected= 25%; ganzfeld= 41.3%, p< .001 vs. non-ganzfeld= 27.5). No relation between previous psi experiences and ESP scores were found. We do not conclude that the “good” ESP results in our experiment using ganzfeld induction were related to a modified state of consciousness due to the fact that these results could be dependent on other variables independently of the non-ordinary state.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2006). “Seeing and feeling ghosts”: Absorption, fantasy proneness, and healthy schizotypy as predictors of crisis apparition experiences. Journal of Parapsychology, 70, pp. 357-372.

An apparition is a visual experience in which there appears to be a person or animal present, often in connection with an agent who is dying or undergoing some other crisis. Most of this research has involved determining whether apparitions are subjectively or objectively real, existing independently of the mind of the witness. However, a number of normal individuals, when questioned, report a history of hallucinatory experiences. Moreover, there is evidence of quite substantial cultural variations in the disposition to have hallucinatory experiences, which often occur in states of consciousness with particularly lifelike and “real” mental images, such as the hypnagogic/hypnopompic states. This study treats the apparitional experience (AE), the sense of presence (SE), and the mediumship/possession (MP) as phenomena worthy of study in their own right. A number of hypotheses were tested: people seeing apparitions and having other apparition-like experiences (experients) have a higher capacity for absorption, fantasy and dissociation proneness, high neuroticism and schizotypy and score higher on three sensory modalities of hallucinatory experience than non­-experients. Sixhundredfiftysix undergraduate students, 76% females and 24% males (age range 17-57), completed seven scales, such as the Hallucination Experiences Scale, Paranormal Experiences Questionnaire, Creative Experiences Questionnaire, Tellegen Absorption Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Schizotypical Personality Questionnaire,and Eysenck Personality Inventory. Data for persons seeing apparitions (and having other experiences) were compared with data for those who did not. Experients scored higher on absorption (AE: z= 6.06; SP: z= 5.19 and MP: z= 2.11), dissociation (AE: z= 4.65 and SP: z= 4.95), fantasy proneness (z= 4.76) and cognitive perceptual schizotypy (AE: z= 7.01; SP: z= 8.21 and MP: z= 3.08) than non‑experients. Twentyfour (80%) out of 30 correlations were significant for AE, SP and MP with the HES items showing higher hypnagogic/hypnopompic modality (AE: z= 6.44; SP: z= 7.35 and MP: z= 3.18) for experients than for non‑experients. Gender differences were overall non-significant. This study demonstrated the viability of adopting a psychological approach in order to better understand the apparitional experience. Apparitional and apparition-like experiences are related to higher levels of reports of absorption, dissociation and imaginative‑fantasy experiences. Such findings suggest that visions of ghosts may be related to cogni­tive processes involving fantasy and cognitive perceptual schizotypy proneness, which are correlated with each other. Many therapists still regard clients who report apparitions as mentally ill; however, they often do not tell anyone about their experiences. Apparitional experiences have implications for clinical psychology and the philosophy of perception, as well as for parapsychology.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2006). Exploring psychomanteum as a psi-conducive state of consciousness. En C.Simmonds-Moore (Ed.), Proceedings of the 49th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 141-152). Hasselbacken Hotel Stockholm, Suecia.

The mirror gazing procedure termed the “psychomanteum” was developed by the world renowned psychiatrist Dr. Raymond Moody. It was designed to facilitate reunion experiences with deceased individuals, as a means of addressing the feelings surrounding bereavement. Although the modern psychomanteum is not normally employed to seek ESP information about the future, it may be that the psychomanteum is psi-conductive.  For example, there are many similarities and differences between psychomanteum experiences and accounts of hypnagogic/hypnopompic imagery, which is conducive to ESP. The aim is of this paper was to explore whether the psychomanteum technique encourages a psi-conducive state of consciousness, which would result in scoring that is significantly above MCE. One hundred and thirty participants (92 females and 38 males; Mean age= 47.44) were recruited by announcements in newspapers and our web site. Seventy eight percent claimed to have had a variety of ESP experiences. A number of variables, such as vividness of imagery and hallucinatory experience, were examined. Two conditions, psychomanteum and non-psychomanteum condition, were compared. A CD-pool containing 200 high-quality color pictures, such as animals, icons, foods, people, landscapes, religion, scenic pictures, structures, and humoristic cartoons, were designed using a RNG for randomization.Under psychomanteum condition, psi-hitting was obtained (30.8% above MCE); however, under no-psychomanteum (“control”) condition, 29.2% was obtained (where 25% was expected). The results differ slightly from MCE in the psychomanteum condition (p= .02, one-tailed) in comparison with no-psychomanteum condition, but no significant differences were found. A number of positive correlations were also found, for instance, participants who attained higher scores on auditory and visual hallucinations tended to demonstrate psi-hitting.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2006). Comparing a free response test using an object and without object condition: First study exploring the “token-object” effect on an ungifted sample. En C. Simmonds-Moore (Ed.), Proceedings of the 49th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 299-307). Hasselbacken Hotel Stockholm, Suecia.

Psychometry is the ability often claimed by phycics to obtain impressions about people from objects that they have owned. Many authors have suggested explanations for psychometry in terms of Roll´s “psi field“ theory. Psychometry is a very difficult area of research, which has mostly been limited to qualitative analysis, due to problems in evaluating free response material. To date, there has been little interest in exploring psychometry among ordinary people. In this study, a psychometry-based strategy for obtaining ESP hits, using personal objects, was compared to a non-psychometric strategy using picture stimuli in sealed envelopes. The order of carrying out the psychometric and non-psychometric procedures was counterbalanced. Seventyone unselected, ordinary people were recruited as participants through advertisements. Besides, four volunteers served as „target persons“, who carried identical objects with them for fifteen days. All participants then underwent both conditions of the psi experiment: obtaining impressions from a token-object and from a picture in an envelope. Test instructions were given to both participants and target persons. Blind coding and recoding procedures were used by the experimenters. In the psychometry condition, participants touched four objects for obtaining impressions and completed four trials. Target persons blind scored the participant´s statements. A similar procedure was employed in the non-psychometry condition, a free-response test using visual imagery. Targets were randomly assigned for both the visual imagery test and the token objects test,. The non-psychometry condition resulted in higher scores (p= .005) than those obtained in the psychometry condition. The difference between the target conditions (non-psychometry vs. psychometry) was also significant (z-score= 2.65, p= .008, two-tailed). We conclude that this experiment offers some support for the claim that stimulation of visual imagery is more psi-conducive than the use of token objects, presumably at least among ordinary people. It may well be that psychometry involves more complex cognitive processes than we have considered.

GÓMEZ MONTANELLI, DANIEL E. & PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2002-2005). Are spontaneous anomalous/paranormal experiences disturbing?: A survey among under-graduate stundents. International Journal of Parapsychology, 13, 1-14.

Often people have strong reactions when they think they have had a psychic or “psi” experience. A survey of anomalous/paranormal experiences which was designed by us was administered to a undergraduated university students (N _ 392). More than half say to have experienced—at the least several times—phenomena such as telepathy (66.3%) and ESP dreams (50.7%), past lives recalls (32.1%) and RSPK (42.8%). Four anomalous/ paranormal experiences revealed a high tendency to disturb, such as mediumship, possession, RSPK, and spiritual contact (almost two thirds). The third part also indicated not to have consulted actually for counceling about their experiences. Ninety four percent were not looking for orientation. Relatives, friends and acquaintances were the more consulted.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2004). Are musical themes better than visual images as ESP-targets? An experimental study using the ganzfeld technique. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 4(2), 114-127.

The ability to detect emotion in music has many educational and practical benefits, however appear few studies reported literature in which sounds have been used as stimuli in extrasensory tests. The present study is undertaken to compare auditory with visual stimuli and to explore whether psychological factors which appear to be favorable in music tests are related with ESP. Musical styles were chosen as targets in this experiment. Fifty four subjects attended two GESP sessions (one trial each) at the Institute of Paranormal Psychology at Buenos Aires, Argentina. The first author (AP) was the experimenter, who received each participant, and second author (JV) was the unaware “sender” to all of the sample. A CD–R contained 3,500 high–resolution color pictures and other CD contained 112 themes on mp3 format were used. Stimulus targets were randomly selected. Both experiments, musical- (p < .008) and visual-target condition (p= .001), in a positive direction for the visual target condition, obtained psi-hitting, but the difference between both was no significant.

GÓMEZ MONTANELLI, DANIEL & PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2004). A clinical approach to the emotional processing of anomalous/paranormal experiences in group therapy. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 68.3, 876, 129-142.

An investigation was conducted to record reactions to disturbing psi experiences and to explore their emotional and intellectual processing. Thirty-two subjects participated in weekly group sessions involving humanistic group therapy. The activity involved three stages: (a) emotional support, (b) intellectual and emotional processing, and (c) group-closing and interpretation. Using the Q-sort technique, an evaluation was made of emotional and intellectual thinking and feelings, motivation to be a group member, comprehensibility of the experiences, their integration into life, emotional and intellectual meaning, and emotional disturbance prior to entry into group and after group therapy designed by ourselves. Over three-quarters of the sample reported fear — in different forms — to be the pre­dominant emotion; wonder, perplexity, well-being and anxiety were also reported. Scores on a measure of disturbance decreased as a consequence of the group activity (mean pre-score = 4.85, mean post-score = 1.70), which is consistent with emotional processing and integration. Members reported that therapy had made them feel they had been listened to, accepted, understood, and supported by the therapist as well as the other group members. More than half said that the group activity contributed to their personal or spiritual development; others found a fresh interpretation for their psi experiences, or felt emotionally better in their inter­personal relationships, and/or found new meaning in their lives. Group members felt able to learn to handle their own capacity for engaging in constructive personal, interpersonal and spiritual growth. We conclude that humanistic group therapy can be effective with people who have distressing experiences, such those involving paranormal phenomena, and so may be an appropriate method for the further parapsychological exploration of many paranormal experiences.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2003). Personality factors and psi-ganzfeld sessions: A replication and extension. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 3(2), 159-174.

This is a report of a study of the relationship between personality factors and ESP scores obtained using the ganzfeld technique, which has had a modest but consistent number of successes in various laboratories. Eysenck’s (1967) linking of extraversion and arousal was deemed potentially important to ESP performance. The relationship between ESP performance and individual differences and several personality dimensions have been studied, according to Honorton’s model which predicts the personality characteristics of successful ganzfeld participants. One hundred and thirty-eight subjects attended one ganzfeld session (telepathy–focused) at the Institute of Paranormal Psychology, Argentina. The first author (AP) was the experimenter, who received each participant, and the second author (JV) was sender for each participant. Two personality inventories (the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire) were administered before each ganzfeld session. Overall results of this experi­ment offered some support to the claim that ganzfeld stimulation is psi-conducive (41.3% hits, p < .001). Phlegmatic, Melancholic, Choleric and Sanguine are four personality profiles that arise from a combination of N and E scores. Though this study did not show significant results relating direct hits to E or N scores or the 16PF factors, they were found for sanguine females and choleric male subjects. Cholerics obtained more hits than did melancholics.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2003). Personality factors and ESP during ganzfeld session. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 67.1, 870, 26-36.

This is a report of an experiment of two dimensions of personality (extraversion–introversion and neuroticism) and ESP in the Ganzfeld. Our hypotheses were that ESP high-scores would be related to extraversion high-scores and to neuroticism low-scores. Thirty subjects (receivers) were individually tested in a thirty-minute long Ganzfeld at the Instituto de Psicología Paranormal in Buenos Aires. Each receiver answered two questionnaires before the Ganzfeld session: Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), which measure two personality traits (neuroticism and introversion/extraversion) and the Pre-Ganzfeld Questionnaire, which rated their level of relaxation, mood, and expectation of success and motivation. One of us (JV) was the sender for all the sample. Each receiver had to guess a target photograph taken from a CD that had 3,500 color photos of high resolution. We found a significant relationship between extraversion and ESP scores (Fisher’s exact test p= .008, one-tailed, Phi= .482) (N= 25). There were no significant effects between ESP scores and neuroticism (Fisher’s exact test p= .56 [one-tailed]). There were also no significant effects between ESP scores and relaxation, mood, motivation and expectative of success before Ganzfeld session. A discussion of the possibility that the Ganzfeld technique interacts in some way with extraversion and other variables that may explain the significant effect we obtained regarding extraversion-introversion is presented.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO  & GÓMEZ MONTANELLI, DANIEL (2000). Conflictive psi experiences: A survey with implications for clinical parapsychology. En F. Steinkamp (Ed.), Proceedings of the 43th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp.178-191). Freiburg, West Germany: Parapsychological Association.

We designed a self-administered questionnaire of extrasensory experiences which contains 46 questions to a population of persons interested in paranormal topics (N= 432) The sample included both female (60%) and male (40%) participants, their ages ranged from 17 to 83 years (Mean = 43.16; SD= 14.96). The experiences ranged from psi experiences such as extrasensory perception and psychokinesis, including spontaneous psychokinesis (RSPK) and healing through paranormal means to psi-related experiences such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, the past lives recall, and contact with the dead or with extraterrestrial entities. We obtained information about the type and frequency of the experiences, and  if they resulted –somehow– to be conflictive or traumatic and in what degree, and if they consulted about their experiences, who were the consultants, if they initiated a treatment or looked for advice, and if the treatment was effective. Over two thirds reported to be receptor of telepathic information, ESP in dreams, out-of-the-body experiences, psi healing, and spiritual contact. We found that almost two thirds of the people interviewed indicated that at least one of their experiences had been conflictive. Although the two thirds indicated never to have consulted, those who did, however, pointed out that relatives and friends were the persons most consulted and half manifested that this help had been effective. We compared our results with a sample of the same size of university students (N= 392) to whom we administered the same survey introducing an ordinal scale of Spirituality. The sample included both sexs (male 12.5% and female 87.5%) and their ages ranged from 18 to 66 years (Mean= 25.53; SD= 7.89). Using the t test we obtained an average significantly greater of experiences in our sample than the one for the students (Mean= 6.12 vs. 3.19, pdif <.0001). To determine if spirituality has an influence on the report of the experiences, we compared the degree of spirituality between them. We found that our sample felt more spiritual than that of the students (U of Mann-Whitney, p <.0001, one tail), but that it does not influence the experiences in our sample. The students’s spirituality correlates positively and significantly with the report of experiences such as perception of lights/energies, out-of-the-body experiences, and mediumnity/channeling (p<.0001). A discussion on the results are presented in this report. Although conflict refers to a confrontation between emotions and/or thoughts and trauma refers to the impact produced in the psyche by an internal or external fact, to our investigation, we understand that a situation highly conflictive or stressing can be as difficult to process psychologically as a traumatic event. Clinical psychologists and social psychologists should pay attention to the reports of parapsychological experiences, since these reveal the impact that they seem to have over the general population. Future studies should put emphasis in the psychodynamics of  psi and in the emotional conflictivity which –in greater or lesser degree– this seems to generate.

Subir

AP Books´s Book Reviews

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2009). El Mundo Oculto de los Sueños [The Hidden World of Dreams]. Buenos Aires: Kier, Pp. 319. ISBN 978-950-17-4251-0 (Reviewed by José M Pérez-Navarro).

The literature on dreams and the dreaming experience is vast. However, the escaping nature of this phenomenon and the diversity of approaches adopted still leave room for key questions like whether dreams fulfil psychological needs or whether their interpretation can be of any use to us. In this book A. Parra reviews a large body of theory and research, making great effort to provide a clear picture of the current state of the art in relation to this intriguing  cognitive activity.

In chapter one (Teorías de los sueños, Theories of dreams), Parra examines a diversity of theories, taking the reader from the classical psychoanalytical and Jungian theories to more contemporary cognitive approaches. Something I particularly liked from this chapter was that the author included a description of dream related disorders as well as a physiological account of the dreaming experience.

In a second chapter (Análisis de contenido en el estudio de los sueños, Content analysis in the study of dreams), the author deepens into the examination of the content of dreams, describing a series of methods, like Hall and van de Castle’s method for categorising and analysing dreams. This chapter, interestingly, integrates a good body of research on individual differences in dreaming and dream content in relation to gender, age, and other variables. At the end of this chapter, Parra also discusses recurrent and traumatic dreams and includes some cases of dreams of survivors of natural disasters.

In an interesting third chapter (El potencial creativo de los sueños, The creative power of dreams), Parra, using examples from the literature, writes about the creative value of the dreaming experience. This chapter offers an interesting overview of how dreams can help us to solve everyday and professional problems as well as can inspire art, creation, and science. Parra argues that dreams can also be motivators of personal development and spiritual change.

In chapter four (Imágenes oníricas más allá del tiempo y la distancia, Oniric images beyond time and distance), the author covers what, historically, has been one of the most controversial approaches to the study of dreams but that , at the same time, has generated most public interest. This is the paranormal meaning of dreams. This chapter includes an analysis of the empirical evidence for the value of dreams as a vehicle for extrasensory perception, premonition and spiritual guide.

Chapter five (El trabajo con los sueños, Working with dreams) is, from my point of view, the author’s most valuable contribution in applied terms. Very few psychologists make use of dreams in their professional practice. In 50 pages, Parra takes us through a generous set of methods and techniques that could be used in a wide number of contexts. Among others, Parra analyses Hill’s technique in cognitive therapy and Leuner’s guided affective imagery technique. To finish this chapter, the author also describes a method to deal with recurrent nightmares.

In brief, Parra’s book is both, a synthesis of the current state of the art of theory and research in this area as well as a basis for new development, as can be seen, specially, in his fifth chapter. My only criticism, if any, would be the succinctness with which the author covers neurophysiological aspects of dreams and dreaming, though this would take a whole new book and would, probably, be more suitable in areas of science other than psychology. The impartiality with which Parra deals with the huge diversity of approaches, integrating research findings throughout, is a clear strength of this book.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2006). Sueños: Cómo interpretar sus mensajes [Dreams: How to interpret their messages]. Buenos Aires: Kier, Pp. 160. ISBN 950-17-7040-0 (Reviewed by Carlos Adrián Hernández Tavares and Stanley Krippner).

It is a Spanish-language book that presents to its readers a varied and focused introduction to dream working, as well as an interesting review of several ancient traditions that developed a form of dream interpretation. It provides examples of the role played by dreams throughout human history, from tribes and clans, to the great Egyptian, Asian, and European empires. Modern scientific studies are cited that have influenced popular notions of this very important aspect of human experience.

The book’s author, Alejandro Parra, an Argentine scholar, writes in a reader friendly manner, describing important contemporary explanations about the different faces that dreams can present, from nightmares, to dreams that serve a creative purpose, to those that may facilitate communication with transpersonal sources. His knowledge about dreams and dreaming in different parts of the world is admirable, and his bibliography of selected books is excellent. Parra cites studies that have attempted to unravel some of dreams’ mysteries as well as their possible application to our daily lives.

Among those mentioned are explorers wellknown to readers of this journal, e.g., Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Stanley Krippner, Robert Van de Castle, Montague Ullman, and Clara Hill. Parra also outlines a variety of dreamworking techniques that can be used in counseling children and adolescents, as well as exercises that can easily be used independently or in group. In this book, readers can find guidelines for joining and participating in dream workshops, not just to make intellectual interpretations of their dreams, but to utilize their valuable messages in the resolution of everyday problems. Parra even includes ways the dreams can be utilized for spiritual development, enlightening dreamers in their relationship with “eternal sources.” Sueños: Cómo Interpretar sus Mensajes is an important book for Spanish language readers; it presents authoritative information in an interesting and understandable fashion, material that can be of great help to those that have the deep motivation to experience waking life to the fullest.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2006). (Ed.). Psicología de las Experieneias Paranormales. Introducción a la teoría, investigación, y aplicaciones terapéuticas. [Die Psychologie paranormaler Erfahrungen. Einführung in ihre Theorie, Untersuchung und therapeutische Anwendung]. Buenos Aires: Akadia. (Reviewed by Gerd H. Hövelmann. In: Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, Vol 7, No.1-2, pp.182-186).

Ganz unabhängig von ihrem ontologischen Status haben paranormale Phänomene und die außergewöhnlichen menschlichen Erfahrungen, in denen diese nicht selten Ausdruck zu finden scheinen, beträchtliche klinische Bedeutung. Die schiere Zahl der Anfragen und die Art der Hilfegesuche, die beispielsweise die Parapsychologische Beratungsstelle (W. von Lucadou, F. Zahradnik) und die Abteilung für Information und Beratung des Instituts für Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene (IGPP), beide in Freiburg, kontinuierlich erreichen, lassen daran nicht den geringsten Zweifel. Dessen ungeachtet sind klinisch relevante Studien im parapsychologischen Forschungskanon ebenso wie Publikationen im einschlägigen Schrifttum weiterhin unterrepräsentiert. Das gilt, soweit es umfangreichere Programme und Arbeiten betrifft, insgesamt schon für deutsche Verhältnisse, entschiedener aber noch für Großbritannien und die Vereinigten Staaten (zu den Ausnahmen zählt hier z.B. der Tagungsband von Coly & McMahon 1993). Beinahe gar nicht existent sind entsprechende Veröffentlichungen bisher in zahlreichen anderen Ländern, nicht zuletzt in Südamerika. Das ist insofern ein wenig erstaunlich, als man in Gesellschaften, namentlich der brasilianischen, in denen z.B. spiritistische Überzeugungen wenig kontrovers, weit verbreitet und selbst in therapeutischen Kontexten nicht anstößig sind, eigentlich einen anderen Befund erwarten würde. Das generelle Fehlen einer entsprechenden seriösen Fachliteratur hat seinen Grund indessen in dem Umstand, dass, zumal in Argentinien, Brasilien und Chile, Parapsychologisches traditionell überhaupt nur selten in wissenschaftlichen, sondern vielmehr dominant in religiösen Kontexten diskutiert zu werden pflegte. Erst in den vergangenen zwanzig Jahren ändert sich dies merklich, wenn auch mit kleinen Schritten, und auch die hier vorliegende, von Alejandro Parra in Argentinien zusammengestellte Anthologie über klinische Aspekte und Belange der Parapsychologie ist ein Indiz dieser Entwicklung.

Alejandro Parra, argentinischer Psychologe und seit 1990 Herausgeber der Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal, hat in dieser Aufsatzsammlung außer zwei Anhängen und seiner eigenen Einführung in das Thema zehn Beiträge versammelt, die allesamt (sieben in englischer, drei in spanischer Sprache) zuvor bereits veröffentlicht waren. Darunter sind vier Beiträge (von Kramer, Parker, Harary und Neppe), deren Originalversionen dem schon erwähnten Tagungsband von Coly und McMahon (1993) entstammen.

Der Band eröffnet mit einem Beitrag des holländischen Psychologen Wim Kramer, der in die Probleme klinischer Parapsychologie anhand der Erfahrungen einführt, die er in der zweiten Hälfte der 80er Jahre mit einer Parapsychologischen Beratungsstelle in Utrecht machen konnte. Die statistische Auswertung der Unterlagen von 200 überwiegend (730/0) weiblichen Klienten bettet er in den weiteren Kontext einer Erörterung der Aufgaben einer derartigen Beratungsstelle, zu denen, neben der Beratung einschlägig Betroffener, Ausbildung, Lehre und Vortragstätigkeiten ebenso zählen wie der behutsame Umgang mit den Anspruchsgebaren öffentlicher Medien, Gutachten bei polizeilichen Ermittlungen und in Gerichtsverfahren sowie die beratende Zusammenarbeit mit Psychiatern, Klinischen Psychologen und Sozialarbeitern, an deren Schulung zur Erkennung und angemessenen Behandlung bisher vernachlässigter, "okkult" bedingter Befindlichkeiten und Störungen Kramer besonders gelegen ist. Adrian Parker, ein britischer, aber bereits seit Jahrzehnten an der Universität Göteborg in Schweden tätiger Psychologe, diskutiert in seinem Beitrag über "Normalität und Abnormalität bei paranormalen Erfahrungen" die bisweilen erstaunlichen phänomenologischen Ähnlichkeiten zwischen Erlebnissen von Personen etwa mit klassisch diagnostizierbaren schizotypen Persönlichkeitsstörungen und solchen, die eigene paranormale Erfahrungen berichten, und er erörtert ohne ein Resultat, das ihn selbst zufiiedenstellen würde Möglichkeiten, beide augenscheinlich einander so ähnliche Formen des außergewöhnlichen Erlebens entweder sauber auseinander zu halten oder aber aufeinander zurückzuführen. Dies leitet über zu einer Diskussion spezifischer Wahrnehmungsprozesse (Absorption, Wahrnehmungsabwehr) unter veränderten Bewusstseinszuständen und insbesondere der Hypothese, außersinnliche Wahrnehmung sei eine natürlich angelegte Wahrnehmungsfunktion, die vom Bewusstsein unter den normalen Umständen des Alltagslebens aber restriktiv unter Kontrolle gehalten werde ein Thema, das Parker schon vor dreißig Jahren in seiner Doktorarbeit (Parker 1975) angerissen hatte.

Unter einer transkulturellen Perspektive analysiert Stanley Krippner das Verhältnis zwischen paranormalen Erfahrungen und dissoziativen Phänomenen und stellt fest, dass die Ergebnisse psychometrischer Instrumente wie der Dissociative Experience Scale (Bernstein & Putnam 1986) häufig signifikant mit denen aus Instrumenten zur Erhebung subjektiver paranortnaler Erfahrungen korrelieren. Krippner sieht ein Kontinuum zwischen psychopathologisch zu beschreibenden unkontrollierten dissoziativen Zuständen einerseits und kontrollierten dissoziativen Zuständen andererseits, die paranormalen Erfahrungen zugrunde liegen könnten und nicht zuletzt bei den klassischen Medien diagnostizierbar seien. Eine andere, in den letzten Jahren zunehmend populäre Zusammenhangshypothese versucht Keith Harary nachzuzeichnen: jene zwischen Kreativität und Psi. Er verbindet dies mit einer nicht uninteressanten parallelen Diskussion über die gesellschaftliche Ablehnung einerseits besonders kreativer, bisweilen avantgardistisch"verrückt" erscheinender Menschen und andererseits jener, die über paranormale Erfahrungen berichten und ihre Mitwelt so auf ganz ähnliche Weise verunsichern oder gegen sich einnehmen. Richard Bentall, klinischer Psychologe an der Universität Manchester, fragt sich in seinem Beitrag, ob paranormale Erfahrungen zu Psychosen führen könnten. Er findet in eigenen, an der Universität Liverpool durchgeführten Untersuchungen ebenso wie in einer Literaturübersicht Hinweise auf sehr ähnlich ausgeprägte Abnormalitäten in kognitiven Attribuierungsprozessen einerseits bei Patienten mit paranoid-halluzinatorischen Erfahrungen, andererseits aber bemerkenswerter Weise auch sowohl bei bekennenden "sheep" (Psi‑Gläubigen) als auch bei "goats" (Nichtgläubigen).

Scott Rogos Beitrag zur Anthologie hat bereits ein veritables Alter von mehr als drei Jahrzehnten. Er stellt ein heute zumindest in seinen Grundzügen, wenn auch nicht unbedingt in Rogos psychoanalytisch getönter Beschreibungsweise weitgehend akzeptiertes psycho‑ und familiendynamisches Poltergeist‑Modell vor ein Entwurf, der dem deutschen oder englischsprachigen Leser inzwischen in dieser rudimentären Form geringfügig antiquiert vorkommen mag, dessen Übersetzung und Wiederabdruck in einer Aufsatzsammlung für eine in erster Linie argentinische Leserschaft aus den eingangs genannten Gründen aber seine Berechtigung haben mag. Harvey Irwins Beitrag über "Erscheinungen" (experiencias aparicional), der Teilnachdruck einer sehr viel umfangreicheren Arbeit, ist der einzige des Bandes, der nicht aus der unmittelbaren Perspektive eines klinischen Psychologen verfasst ist. Die phänomenologische Herangehensweise des australischen Psychologen betont gegenüber der Frage nach der ontologischen Realität von Apparitionen, ungeachtet ihrer Legitimität, die Bedeutung der psychologischen Untersuchung und ggf Begleitung von Personen, die eigene Erscheinungs‑Erfahrungen, wenn auch meist kurzzeitige, beschreiben nach verschiedenen nationalen Umfragen sind dies immerhin zwischen 17% und 32% der Bevölkerung.

In einem gemeinsamen Beitrag diskutieren Daniel Gömez Montanelli und Alejandro Parra sehr dicht am Thema des Bandes verschiedene Weisen der emotionalen Verarbeitung paranormaler Erfahrungen im Kontext einer Gruppenpsychotherapie anhand der Unterlagen der Abteilung für Beratung und Therapie des argentinischen Instituto de Psicologia Paranonnal aus dem Zeitraum zwischen April 1999 und November 2000. Fast 90% der Therapiewilligen zeigten unterschiedliche Angstreaktionen infolge ihrer spontanen paranormalen Erfahrungen, insbesondere Furcht vor etwas Unbekanntem, vor dem Verlust der Kontrolle oder ihrer geistigen Stabilität, aber auch Angst davor, mit ihren Erfahrungen nicht ernst genommen zu werden. Therapiesitzungen in kleinen Gruppen zu je drei bis vier Personen bemühten sich inbesondere um emotionale Unterstützung und (im einzelnen nicht ausgeführte) Interpretationshilfen. Längerftistige Erfolgskontrollen etwaiger therapeutischer Effekte werden nicht berichtet.

James Carpenter versucht in seinem Aufsatz, phänomenologische und historische Parallelen zwischen erfolgreichen psychotherapeutischen Sitzungen und ebenso erfolgreichen parapsychologischen Laborexperimenten dingfest zu machen. Als ähnlich situierte Merkmale stellt er vor allem die Dominanz hysterischer Persönlichkeiten sowohl in der frühen Psychoanalyse als auch im Mediumismus mit seinen hysteriformen Facetten wie automatischer Schrift, dem Sprechen mutmaßlich nicht erlernter Sprachen und dissoziativen Zuständen heraus, Parallelen freilich, die einerseits wegen, andererseits trotz des Behaviorismus, der zwischenzeitlich Einzug gehalten habe, wiederum phänomenologische und historische Grenzen haben: So gehörten in der Psychotherapie Konzepte vom Unbewussten heute weitgehend zum wissenschaftlich akzeptierten Alltagsgeschäft, während Konzepte paranormaler Interaktion günstigenfalls ignoriert würden. Im abschließenden Beitrag des Bandes diskutiert der in Südafrika geborene und ausgebildete, aber seit rund zwanzig Jahren in den USA tätige Psychiater und Neurologe Vemon Neppe Zusammenhänge zwischen Psychopharmakologie und anomalen Erfahrungen im Umfeld der Psychiatrie. Auch er stellt phänomenologische Ähnlichkeiten zwischen psychotischen und paranormalen Erfahrungen in den Mittelpunkt seiner Betrachtungen: Wenn psychotische Patienten häufig angäben, ihre Gedanken würden fremdgelesen oder manipuliert, dann könne dies von berichteten paranormalen Erfahrungen ansonsten psychisch unauffälliger Berichterstatter über Hellsehen, Telepathie und psychokinetische Einflussnahmen bisweilen phänomenologisch nicht zuverlässig unterschieden werden. Neppe lässt die Geschichte nosologischer, diagnostischer und klassifikatorischer Systeme in der Psychiatrie von Kraepelin über Bleuler bis hin zum DSM‑IV Revue passieren und bemängelt, dass jedes anomale Verhalten auch dann lediglich im systematischen und begrifflichen Rahmen traditioneller psychiatrischer Diagnostik abgehandelt zu werden pflege, wenn Patienten außer als paranormal beschreibbaren Erfahrungen keinerlei sonstige Hinweise auf psychische oder soziale Beeinträchtigungen im Vollzug ihres Alltagslebens erkennen ließen. Für eine künftige diagnostische Diskriminierung paranormaler Erfahrungen von psychopathologischen Zuständen schlägt Neppe zwei Kriterein vor: (1) vorliegende bio oder neurologische Auffälligkeiten als Indikatoren und Vorbedingungen für eine psychiatrische Diagnose und (2) die Zulassung psychotropischer Substanzen als Hilfen für eine aktive Differenzierung.

Nicht nur für den spanischen Sprachraum bedeutsam wenngleich nur Spanisch lesenden Interessenten zugänglich ist die von Alejandro Parra kompilierte Aufsatzsammlung, insofern sie eine ganze Reihe klinisch relevanter Probleme der Parapsychologie angemessen diskutiert. Zu diesen zählen, wie beim Durchgang durch die meisten der Einzelbeiträge deutlich geworden sein sollte, insbesondere die differentialdiagnostische Unterscheidbarkeit pathologischer von sonstigen außergewöhnlichen Alltagserfahrungen, ferner Theorien subjektiver paranormaler Erfahrungen aus klinischer Sicht sowie nicht zuletzt mögliche Strategien ffir die Beratung und gegebenenfalls die Therapie von Personen, die aufgrund außergewöhnlicher, mutmaßlich paranormaler Erfahrungen einem Leidensdruck ausgesetzt sind. Eine vergleichende Lektüre der zehn Beiträge verdeutlicht aber zugleich, dass zufriedenstellende Lösungen der angesprochenen Probleme noch immer nicht so sehr Leistungen der Vergangenheit als Aufgaben der Gegenwart und Zukunft sind, Aufgaben im übrigen, die ohne die Mitwirkung kompetenter (das heißt vor allem: auch parapsychologisch kenntnisreicher) Psychiater und Therapeuten letztlich nicht zu bewältigen sein werden. Dafür gilt es jedoch, zunächst Sprachregelungen zu finden, die imstande sind, nicht nur Länder, sondern vor allem auch Wissenschaftskulturen zu übergreifen.

Subir

Literatur

Bernstein, E, M., Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal Nervous andMental Disease, 174, 727‑73 5.

Coly,    L. McMahon, J. D. S. (eds. 1993). Psi and Clinical Praclice. Parapsychology Foundation, New York.

Parker, A. (1975). States of Mind.‑ ESP and Altered States of Consciousness. Malaby Press, London.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2005). Sueños: Cómo interpretar sus mensajes by Alejandro Parra. Editorial Kier, Buenos Aires, 2005. 158 pages. ISBN 950 17 7040 0 (Reviewed by Anabela Cardoso. In Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 70.4, 885, 243-244).

This book is an interesting and thorough introduction to the study of dreams from a serious perspective. Particularly valuable are the historical insights presented in relation to the different types of dreams, and the accessible and clear language the author uses to describe the various physiological phases of the dreaming process.

Alejandro Parra gives proof of excellent knowledge and information on both past and current dream research in different parts of the globe, and the connections he draws between the respective investigators and the methods used make reading this book pleasant and easy.

The book covers creative dreams, paranormal dreams, nightmares, dream symbolism and interpretation, and techniques for dream recall. There is also a short bibliography. This is not just one more book on dreams but a valuable condensed introduction to understanding the important role dreams play in the innermost aspects of our lives.

The author, who is based in Buenos Aires, is the editor of the Revista Argen­tina de Psicologia Paranormal and President of the Instituto de Psicologia Paranormal. A psychologist himself, Alejandro Parra's recommendations on how to work with one's dreams appear to be the result of careful study and of personal practice in the fascinating area of oneiric exploration.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2005). Sueños: Cómo Interpretar sus Mensajes by Alejandro Parra Kier Editorial, Pp. 160. ISBN: 9501770400. (Reviewed by Carlos Adrián Hernández Tavares and Stanley Krippner. In: Perspectives: Newsletter of the Association for Humanistic Psychology, Dec. 2006, p. 25.)

It is a Spanish‑language book that presents to its readers a varied and focused introduction to dream working, as well as an interesting review of several ancient traditions that developed a form of dream interpretation. It provides exam­ples of the role played by dreams throughout human history, from tribes and clans, to the great Egyp­tian, Asian, and European empires.

Modern scientific studies are cited that have influenced popular notions of this very important aspect of human experience. The book's au­thor, Alejandro Parra, an Argentine scholar, writes in a reader friendly manner, describing important contemporary explanations about the different faces that dreams can present, from nightmares, to dreams that serve a creative purpose, to those that may facilitate communi­cation with transpersonal sources. His knowledge about dreams and dreaming in different parts of the world is admirable, and his bibliography of selected books is excellent. Parra cites studies that have attempted to unravel some of dreams' mysteries as well as their possible application to our daily lives. Among those mentioned are explorers well‑known to readers of this journal, e.g., Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Stanley Krippner, Robert Van de Castle, Montague Ullman, and Clara Hill.

Parra also outlines a variety of dreamworking tech­niques that can be used in counsel~ in‑ children and adolescents, as well as exercises that can easily be used independently or in group. In this book, readers can find guidelines for Joining and participating in dream workshops, notiust to make intellectual interpretations of their dreams, but to utilize their valuable messages in the resolution of every­day problems. Parra even includes ways the dreams can be utilized for spiritual development, enlightening dreamers in their relationship with “eternal sources" Sueños: Cómo Interpretar sus Mensajes is an im­portant book for Spanish language readers; it presents authoritative information in an interesting and understandable fashion, material that can be of great help to those that have the deep motivation to experience waking life to the fullest.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2003). Fenómenos Paranormales. Kier, Buenos Aires. Pp. 158. (Reviewed by Guy Lyon Playfair. InJournal of the Society for Psychical Research, 68.4, No.877, pp. 269-270).

These two books have much in common. Both are concise yet comprehensive, and their authors, each of whom edits a parapsychology journal, share an uncompromisingly positive approach to their vocation. Both cover much the same ground, albeit from different perspectives, although, for reasons on which one can only speculate, neither author mentions the other.

Kreiman's book, despite its somewhat unwieldy title (Descriptive and Conceptual Elements of Parapsychology), consists of eight chapters chiefly of lively reminiscences of an active research career which began in 1964 and continued until his death in 2003. He has some surprises in store for us, such as the revelation that J. B. Rhine declined invitations to visit Argentina and Brazil on the grounds that parapsychology in both countries was too close to Spiritism. Indeed, Kreiman makes it clear that scientific parapsychology in his country was pioneered by members of the Spiritist movement, including himself, as was the case, at roughly the same time, in Brazil (Rueda, 1991). Rhine did at least include abstracts of several of Kreiman's papers from Cuadernos de Parapsicologia in the Journal of Parapsychology.

Kreiman makes several good points in passing, such as the fact that exact replicability is impossible in view of differing experimenter effects (pp. 79‑81); and that the much‑promoted meta‑analytical method is of questionable value insofar as it is, in effect, quantifying the chalk together with the cheese (pp. 37‑38). He also includes an intriguing personal instance of a psi‑mediated instrumental response; visiting his parents at their holiday resort, he arrived in town to find he had lost‑ their address. After wandering around for some time he suddenly felt impelled to run, turning a corner to see his mother stepping indoors from a balcony. Had he not decided to run for no logical reason, he recalls, he might never have found her.

Parra is a university lecturer in psychology, one of Latin America's most active and internationally known parapsychologists, and editor of the journal, Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal. He packs a great deal of carefully researched and well selected information into this short book, than which there could be no better introduction for Spanish‑readers interested in a serious study of psi research; for despite the rather down‑market title, Paranormal Phenomena, of a book clearly aimed at a mass market, this is essentially a parapsychology primer.

It is an unusually readable one. The author writes in very clear and non­technical language and has plenty to say, notably on the often neglected question of the role of the parapsychologist as counsellor to those upset by anomalous experiences, who often get no help from anybody else and whose worries are made worse by sceptical suggestions that their experiences are imagined or faked.

He is also a vigorous champion of his chosen field. Psi research, he concludes (p. 153) should not just be successful, but should also be revolutionary and make a real impact on society and culture.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2003). Fenómenos Paranormales: Una introducción a los eventos sorprendentes [Paranormal Phenomena: An introduction to amazing events]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Kier. (Reviewed by Carlos S. Alvarado European Journal of Parapsychology, 19, pp. 101-104.)

This book is one volume in an ambitious collection  of books about “the other side of reality” collated by Dario Bermudez, an Argentine writer and prize-winning playwright. It is more comprehensive than the first edition of what, in English, would be titled “Paranormal Phenomena: An Introduction to Surprising Events.” Indeed, if it were translated into English it would be quite serviceable as an introduction to psi phenomena. Its author, Alejandro Parra, has edited a Spanish-language parapsychology journal for many years and has presented papers, many of them reports of his own experiments, at parapsychological congresses in both hemispheres.

Fenómenos Paranormales is reader-friendly; despite the technical material that such a book must cover, it is accessible to the interested layperson. Its comprehension is aided by several photographs of relevant procedures, practices, and important people in the field and by tables and diagrams that do an admirable job of summarizing data and experiments.  For example, the first table portrays the basic categories of both ESP (precognition, retrocognition, telepathy, and remote viewing – a term that seems to be replacing “clairvoyance”) and PK (macro-PK, micro-PK, bio-PK). The history of psi research, dating the from the early psychical research societies, is briefly but accurately presented; there is an emphasis upon European events and pioneers but the rest of the world is included as well. A distinction is made between what is “anomalous” and what is “paranormal,” a differentiation that is articulate enough to prevent the terms from ever becoming synonyms.  Clinical, applied, experimental, and education perspectives of parapsychology are contrasted, and case studies help readers anchor these concepts in reports of life events.

A chapter on ESP highlights the contributions of J.B. and L.E. Rhine, moving rapidly along to recent work with the Ganzfeld technique. A section on psychometry allows Parra to include a case study from Mexico, and he has chosen the classic work of Musso in Argentina to describe the procedures involved in testing for ESP. The chapter ends with an admirable overview of theoretical conjectures on the nature of ESP, as well as a checklist for separating the “psychics” from the “pseudopsychics.” The following chapter focuses on PK, with an emphasis on random event generator experiments and bio-PK (divided into work with plants, seeds, animals, and microscopic organisms). Two paragraphs are devoted to macro-PK; although Uri Geller’s demonstrations are viewed with skepticism the publisher unaccountably has graced the cover of this book with a bent spoon!

The chapter on altered states of consciousness is such a gem it could be published by itself as an informative article. A table describes the four major brain waves and their experiential correlates.  Thirteen states of consciousness are enumerated, some of them overlapping (e.g., states of “rapture” and states of “expanded consciousness”). The first state is listed as “sueno” (dreams) but the description is more appropriate to “sono” (sleep).  These states of consciousness are then linked to paranormal phenomena with an emphasis upon hypnagogic and hypnopompic imagery, “peak experiences” as described by A.H.  Maslow, and mystical states, potentially life-changing experiences that occur cross-culturally and play an important role in the formulations of transpersonal psychologists.

The lay reader will be delighted with Chapter Five because it cites categories of people who ask questions about psi phenomena, e.g., those who believe they have encountered “mysterious forces,” those with a history of psychiatric treatment. Parra cites his own research study of 392 university students and their reported conflicts in regard to purported psi experiences, e.g., only 14% experients (250 of the 392) were disturbed by purportedly psychic dreams but 33% of those who reported experiencing “possession” (69 out of the 392) were upset. Nevertheless, Parra lays to rest the notion that psi experiences indicate that the experient is going “loca” or “crazy.”

Perhaps Parra spends more time describing the purported feats of the Dutch “paragnost” Gerard Croiset than is justified, and some of his cases of apparitions and reincarnation are less than convincing. To our way of thinking, he does not sufficiently unpack the term “miracle”; if something truly violates the lays of nature, it can be described but can not be adequately studied nor understood by parapsychology or any other branch of science.  Nevertheless, the liaison between the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Parapsychological Association is mentioned, PSICOP is paid its dues, and the ever-present possibilities of fraud and imperfect research designs are acknowledged. The importance of using all of Ken Wilber’s “three eyes” (of the senses, of reason, and of the spirit) is encouraged, and science is properly described as a method, not a permanent body of knowledge. Ending the book on an optimistic note, Parra believes that parapsychology can contributed to this data bank, and may even have made an impact upon society and culture. This book will prepare its Spanish-speaking readers to follow future events in parapsychology as they unfold and decide for themselves the impact that “surprising events” and their study make upon the world and humanity’s attempts to understand it.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (1998) (Ed.). Tercer Encuentro Psi: Conciencia y psi como fronteras de exploración científica [Third Encounter Psi 1998: Consciousness and Psi as Frontiers of Scientific Exploration]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Kier. (Reviewed by José M. Pérez-Navarro. In: International Journal of Parapsychology, 11, 1, 2000, pp. 181-186.)

This review covers the proceedings of the Third Parapsychology Conference organized by Alejandro Parra of the Instituto de Psicologia Paranormal, which took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 13th to the 15th of November in 1998. Although the event was held under the title "Consciousness and Psi as Frontiers of Scientific Exploration," a large variety of areas in parapsychology were covered. The two previous conferences were characterized by a notorious dominance of theoretical papers over research‑based work, the latter accounting for only 25% of presented work in the first conference (1994) and 30% in the second (1996).

In the Third Psi Encounter, 37 people from 6 different countries (Argentina, Brazil, Japan, Portugal, Puerto Rico, and the USA) contrib­uted a total of 16 papers and took part in roundtable discussions which covered 8 additional topics. Thirty‑seven percent of the papers presented were research‑based, suggesting a growing tendency toward research work, in comparison to the presentations from the two previous encoun­ters.

Two of the research‑based papers concerned the area of DMILS (Direct Mental Influence on Living Systems). The first one consisted of a six‑year field study on Brazilian healers by Don and Moura. The authors of this study reported a 3 6‑44 Hz increased level of brain activity in the healer, in contrast to the patients' relaxed state during healing sessions. Changes in immune system parameters were also analyzed. In the second paper, Radin, Machado, and Zangari reported two experi­ments in which fluctuations in the autonomic nervous systems of indi­viduals were examined in relation to the psychic effect of a distant healer. In experiment one, marginally‑significant changes were reported with subjects who were placed 200 meters apart. In the second experiment, significant changes were also registered when individuals were 9,600 kilometers apart, and with a temporal delay of two months.

Another research‑based paper was contributed by C. S. Alvarado and N. L. Zingrone, who analyzed attitudinal changes produced after an out‑of‑the‑body experience, on the basis of experience complexity, the religiosity of the experiencer, and the frequency and voluntary control of the phenomena.

A. Parra and J. Villanueva reported a ganzfeld study in which the personality factors of extroversion and neuroticism. were explored, to­gether with relaxation, mood, expectancies, and motives, in relation to ESP performance. The authors proposed that the main effects found with extroversion interacted with the ganzfeld setting. V. Barrionuevo and T. Palld presented a study on training in the ganzfeld technique in a Brazilian community of parapsychology students.

Y. Sako presented a proof‑oriented clairvoyance study, with a single subject, in which a "controversial" target‑call correspondence was re­ported for 97% of 35 trials, with 51.4% of such trials rated as "perfect correspondences." However, the short report did not include data relat­ing to the establishment of a statistical baseline. Moreover, the fact that the individual was allowed to handle the target is worrisome in terms of sensory‑shielding safeguards.

Two theoretical papers were presented which related to clinical aspects of parapsychology. T Palhii discussed the appropriateness of counseling for individuals following a paranormal experience. Addition­ally, in a similar paper, the clinical psychologist M. L. Albuquerque, working from the description of a specific case, discussed the pathologi­cal aspects involved in esoteric practices and occultism. In addition, also from the clinical branch of psychology, the psychoanalysts J. L. Parise and E. J. Banfi put forward a perspective under which psi can be viewed as a natural extension of psychoanalytical events. The authors proposed an integrative approach to the study of both types of phenomena.

Only two papers dealt explicitly with the study of consciousness and psi. One was by Stanley Krippner. He highlighted the importance of theory in parapsychology, and its connection with the main scientific paradigms. He also described Ken Wilber's Integral Theory of Con­sciousness, which includes twelve different ways of approaching the study of consciousness and psi phenomena. Similarly, Brelaz de Castro pre­sented a review of psi research as a contribution to the understanding of consciousness. He argued that conceptualizing consciousness as an epiphenomenon of brain futictioning is too restrictive a view.

A. Barros presented a field study conducted in the city of Recife in Brazil which aimed at outlining the degree to which business managers seek assistance from, and use parapsychological findings, and intuition in their decision making. The survey revealed that 34% to 46% of the managers surveyed used intuition to make decisions in their business, although only 7.2% explicitly stated that they used paranormal means for such purposes. Other field studies presented included the work of F. Machado and W. Zangari which covered their investigations of three poltergeist cases in Sao Paulo, Brazil, one of which turned out to be fraudulent. The authors discussed the difficulties that such an enquiry implies, in terms of methodology, practicalities, and interpretation of the phenomena. In another case study report, I.R. Lima described her work on the alleged psychopictographic activity of a particular individual (that is, a subject who was said to be able to produce photographs by thought). Several of the subject's pictures were analyzed on the basis of predetermined parameters.

The agricultural scientist I. Lépes described his anpsi (animal psi) work with flies, using a design in which telepathy was, presumably, the means for survival and genetic selection. A detailed historical review of table‑tilting was presented by J. Gimeno. He highlighted the utility of this technique for the exploration of macro‑PK and claimed that this technique, as well as many other similar practices, have been sacrificed for the development of an experimental approach.

In addition to the above presentations, eight more topics were dis­cussed in roundtable debates. They were: altered states of consciousness as psi‑conducive (contributed by Zangari, Bautista, and Cia), the role of women in Latin American parapsychology (by Barrionuevo, Machado, and Massa), psychological counseling in parapsychology (G6mez‑Mon­tanelli, Bouquet, and Palhii), psychoanalysis and parapsychology (Massa, Topf, and Parise), survival hypotheses (Albuquerque, Gimeno, and Gardini), the future of parapsychology (Gimeno, Krippner, and Ar­gibay), the role of media in Latin American parapsychology (Agostinelli, Parra, and Machado), and epistemological aspects of "borderline" sci­ences (Klimovsky, Russo, Argibay, and Mazzarella).

The proceedings of the Third Psi Encounter, as a whole, convey the sense of many interesting activities in Latin America, covering a large portion of the field's topics. The reports of the 16 presentations, as well as the roundtable discussions, are included in full in the proceedings book which also includes complete bibliographies. However, it might have been more useful had the editors provided English abstracts of the papers for non‑Spanish/non‑Portuguese speakers. 1 would encourage them to do so in future editions.

Ibero‑American parapsychology, in general, has been characterized by an over‑reliance on theoretical work and discussion, and a lack of pertinent experimentation and empirical work such as that which is found in Anglo‑American and Northern European parapsychology. This criticism has been put forward on several occasions with the hope of convincing Ibero‑American parapsychologists that theoretical work needs to be supported by experimental research. The increasing trend in research‑based papers drawn from the three conferences (1994, 1996, and 199 8) is promising. However, this picture maybe misleading because the first authors of three of the research‑based papers in the third conference (Don, Radin, and Alvarado) are actually very well‑known parapsychologists who publish frequently in the English‑language lit­erature. It is fair to mention too that, despite their excellent preparation in mainstream sciences (such as psychology, medicine and physics), there are social, economic, and cultural adversities which Ibero‑American parapsychologists in general, and Latin American parapsychologists in particular, must overcome in order to engage in psi‑research. The great majority of parapsychology work is undertaken and reported in English­speaking countries. The “language barrier" is difficult to overcome, in both directions. Moreover, funding and social (as well as cultural) support for parapsychology research projects are additional obstacles in Ibero­ America. Awareness of these difficulties might prevent professionals from undertaking psychical research, which may be restraining the development of parapsychology as a science in these countries.

Nevertheless, it is noticeable that a small community of parapsy­chologists in Latin America are making efforts on behalf of this disci­pline. From my point of view, such efforts are starting to be fruitful now. This can be observed in particular in the creation of new parapsychology organizations such as the Asociaci6n Ibero‑americana de Parapsicologia (Ibero‑American Association of Parapsychology) and other activities such as the organization of these “Psi Encounters" by Alejandro Parra. However, the efforts must continue. It is important to reiterate here that the emphasis on research as a support for theoretical work must continue to increase, and that the disintegration of the language barrier is key to the advancement of this discipline from its present state to a true science in Latin America.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (Ed) (1996). Segundo Encuentro Psi: Aportes de la psicología moderna a la parapsicología [Second Psi Encounter: Contributions of Mod­ern Psychology to Parapsychology]. Bue­nos Aires: Instituto de Psicologia Paranormal. (Reviewed by Carlos S. Alvarado. In Journal of Parapsychology, 60, pp. 357-361)

This book is the proceedings of the second parapsychology confer­ence organized by Argentinean parapsychologist Alejandro Parra. His first one Primer Encuentro Psi (First Psi Encounter) took place in Buenos Aires in 1994; the second was also held in Buenos Aires between November 15th and 17th, 1996. Although this was the Segundo Encuen­tro Psi (Second Psi Encounter), Parra's effort is also described in the book reviewed here as the Primer Encuentro Iberoamericano de Para­psicologia (First Ibero‑American Parapsychology Encounter). This addi­tional title reflects the expansion of current efforts to unite not only the Latin Americans who conduct parapsychology, but also those who work in Portugal and in Spain. Probably the most important of these efforts is the creation of the Asociaci6n Iberoamericana de Parapsicologia (Ibero­American Association of Parapsychology), a new organization modeled after the Parapsychological Association.

The proceedings of the Seguno Encuentro Psi reviewed here includes 23 presentations, only one of which appears as an abstract. The content of several roundtables was not included. The authors of the papers pub­lished in this volume come from nine countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Panama, Portugal, Puerto Rico and Spain. To some extent, these papers represent.the state of the art of para­psychology in these countries, particularly in Latin America. Although the subtitle of the conference was "Contributions of Modern Psychology to Parapsychology," only some of the papers addressed this topic, and then only in the sense of discussing psychological correlates of Psi.

Several theoretical papers were presented by Ivo Cyro Caruso (Bra­zil), Gustavo Gabriel Cia (Argentina), Lins Filgueira and Ronaldo Dan­tes (Brazil), and Francisco José Mañez Ferrer (Spain). Although interesting stimuli for further discussion, I feel that many of the ideas presented (quantum theory, chaos theory) are somewhat abstract, and did not provide any specific predictions that could be used to test these theories. There is no doubt that theory is basic to scientific research; however, in Ibero‑American parapsychology there is an unfortunate ten­dency to discuss many of these concepts repeatedly without ever carrying on the necessary research work to test and refine them. This particular criticism is not limited to the papers in this volume, but also applies to parapsychology at large.

The Segundo Encuentro Psi proceedings included papers which re­viewed other particular areas of research. Ritima Regina Machado (Bra­zil) discussed the psychology of poltergeist phenomena, and Wellington Zangari (Brazil) reviewed ganzfeld theory and research. Other reviews of specific areas included Brenio Onetto Bachler's (Chile) paper about the study of precognitive dreams, and Juan Albino Serrano's (Puerto Rico) summary of reincarnation research conducted mainly by Steven­son and Haraldsson. These papers showed an awareness of the past and present literature on their subjects, something that cannot be said of every presentation included in these proceedings. As such, all four review papers will be invaluable to the Ibero‑American community as a guide to the English language literature on those topics.

A long paper by Daniel E. Gémez Montanelli (Argentina) attempted to bring together parapsychology and transpersonal psychology. The paper summarized well the ideas ofj. B. Rhine and others regarding the use of parapsychology as support for the notions of noirphysicality and alternate realities. I must disagree with the author, however, when he characterizes Allan Kardec's work as scientific, and claims it was a precur­sor of the work of Wundt and Fechner. One has only to compare Wundt and Fechner's laboratory research on psychophysics to Kardec's classifi­cation and theoretical work (which was based on transcriptions and commentaries of mediumistic communications) to see the sweeping and significant differences between them. Kardec's work was important for the development of spiritism, but his reliance on mediumistic communi­cations to explain psychic phenomena can hardly be described as scien­tific; rather, this approach seems to represent a modern example of belief in the ability to acquire "truth" through revelation.

Other authors presented discussions that included parapsychological history, concepts, and practical considerations in parapsychology. In her paper, Maria Luisa Albuquerque (Portugal) presented a short history (until the 1950s) of the field, briefly mentioning different schools of parapsychology. It was surprising that Albuquerque claimed that, in 1954, parapsychology was recognized as a "new scientific paradigm" by science. No such event has ever taken place, not then and not in more recent times. Other topics of discussion included psi explanations of reincarnation cases (Valter Rodriguez Da Rosa Borges, Brazil), the disciplinary identification of parapsychology (Antonio Las Heras, Argentina), para­psychological sources of information in the Internet (Alejandro Parra, Argentina), and a historical account of paradigm changes in the field (Victor Antonio Estrella Rodriguez, Dominican Republic).

Two papers focused on the importance of hypnosis to para­psychology. Francisco Ramón de Aguilar Merlo (Panama) discussed hyp­notic regression and its use in finding evidence for intrauterine psychological trauma that he believed could sometimes be of a tele­pathic origin. Moisés Asis (Cuba, but living now in the USA), argued that hypnosis is the most important factor for the development of para­psychology as a science and is the way to solve the puzzle of psi phenom­ena. Hypnosis, however, is far from being a panacea. The search for evidence in any process that uses hypnotic regression is tricky, and can be easily aflected by factors other than real memories. Unfortunately, Aguilar Merlo does not consider such counterhypotheses, nor does he present enough details in the paper to evaluate his claims. Asis'ideas are similar to others presented in the past; however, laboratory research has shown that the use of hypnosis in parapsychological research is not unproblematic. If research conducted during the last years suggests any­thing, it is that ESP is multivariate; that is, hypnosis and other techniques interact with a host of other variables to affect ESP scoring.

The few papers that reported research included case studies and laboratory work. Carlos Alberto Tin6co (Brazil) reported a poltergeist case from Brazil, while Francisco Ram6n de Aguilar Merlo (Panama) discussed fire poltergeist cases from Panama. Unfortunately, only an abstract of the latter paper appeared in the volume. Jalmir Freire Brelaz de Castro (Brazil) presented the results of a survey study of OBEs con­ducted with Brazilian students that contained interesting information about the features of the OBE. One hopes he will conduct more detailed analyses of the variables' interaction in the study. In my paper with Nancy L. Zingrone (Puerto Rico), we summarized three research pro­jects, one each on auras, OBEs, and hauntings.

The rest of the papers reported laboratory studies. Juan Carlos Argibay and Griselda Massa (Argentina) reported a study of ESP and sexual affect. The results offered partial support to the idea that tar­gets with emotional and sexual connotations may be better than tar­gets without those connotations. However, the study did not control for the use of the same targets for most of the participants (which raises the possibility of a stacking effect), and the agent was in the same room as the participants when the targets were written on a blackboard.

Marcelo Fabián Oliva reported six ESP experiments (including a ganJeld study) in which he attempted to test for the idea that ESP may occur without the knowledge or intention of the percipient. Although the author did not give enough credit to previous research on the topic, he used some interesting methods to mask the purpose of the tests from the participants. Oliva characterized his results as evidence for ESP, but his own statistical analyses did not support such a conclusion. His style of reporting was also problematic in that almost no methodo­logical or procedural details were given, thus making an evaluation of his studies difficult (e.g., the ganzfeld study was reported in a mere eleven lines of text). Finally, José Maria Feola (Argentina, but a long‑time resident of the USA) reported some interesting but nonsignificant results on the rela­tionship between ESP and the brain's alpha rhythm.

The papers of the Segundo Encuentro Psi represent the effort of a community in the process of growth, a community that wants to expand and improve parapsychology in Ibero‑America. Unfortunately, there is much to be done to achieve this goal. One of the major problems in Ibero‑America is the lack of an empirical research tradition. That is, historical and conceptual publications have predominated over research efforts such as laboratory work or case studies. That trend exists in this proceedings. Out of 23 papers, only 7 (30%) present research results. I include here only those papers that presented details of research (data), not those which referred to research but presented no results. There is a pressing need to increase research efforts if we want to have a science of parapsychology in Ibero‑America.

Another problem evident in this proceedings is that many of the papers were too brief, and lacked important information necessary for an evaluation of the quality of the research. In addition, many of the authors did not seem to be familiar with the modern literature on their subjects. Granted, this may be evidence of the language barrier, because most of parapsychology's recent research literature is in Eng­lish, a language that not all Ibero‑Americans have mastered. However, these and other problems will need to be addressed if parapsychology is to develop as a science. Efforts such as those of Alejandro Parra, who organized this conference, are extremely important for such an improvement to occur. One hopes that Parra and others like him will host similar conferences in the future that in turn will continue to bring together these researchers. One also hopes that the papers of these future conferences will be refereed by a program committee, so the quality of presentations may be improved. Efforts to improve Ibero‑American parapsychology are already underway in the newly formed Asociaci6n Ibero Americana de Parapsicología (Ibero‑Ameri­can Association of Parapsychology), which hopes to develop the sci­ence of parapsychology in these countries by disseminating basic information on findings and methodology, and by promoting serious education and research.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (1994). Actas del Primer Encuentro Psi 1994: Nuevas Dimensiones en Parapsicología [Proceedings of the First Encounter Psi 1994: New Dimensions in Parapsychology]. Institute of Paranormal Psychology: Bue­nos Aires. Pp.70 (Reviewed by Marcelo Oliva Moyano. In European Journal of Parapsychology, 12, pp. 109-110).

The First Encounter Psi 1994: New Di­mensions in Parapsychology of the Institute of Paranormal Psychology (TP) was held at its headquarters in Buenos Allres, Ar­gentina, on Saturday, 5 November 1994, consisted of Alejandro Parra (Editor of Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal) and Jorge Villanueva (Director of the Insti­tute). This meeting planned to cover sev­eral aspects about parapsychological research in Argentina and the situation of parapsychology around the world. Pro­ceedings of the meeting were distributed among the participants during the meeting. I will briefly review the Procedings in or­der to show what kind of papers were pre­sented.

President of the Laboratorio de Investi­gaciones Parasensoriales [Laboratory of Parasensorial Research], psychologist Oscar Barros Barbeito presented a paper about the application of dermo‑optical percep­tion of colour. A group of subjects (adults, some of them blind) were tested for dermo‑optical perception with a battery of tests to evaluate psychosocio‑cultural characteristics. Targets were presented at random, and consisted of a Max Luscher colour set (30 pictures) with colour pictures, with which the best results were obtained for those offering better contrast.

Juan Carlos Russo, dowser and member if the board of directors of the Sodeclad Argentina de Radiestesia [Argentine Society of Dowsers], studied radiesthesic perception, isolated from any parapsychological manifestation because the psychophysiological reaction was separated from the anomalous detection, as much as possible. Walter Gardini pre­sented a historical paper about psi phenomena in India and its literature, such as the Yoga Aphorism of Patanjali. In his opinion, four conclusions can be reached: (a) psi is valid, efficent and impor­tant; (b) some refer to spiritual develop­ment; (c) others may find deception, slelight‑of‑hand and tricks; and (d) in the ongin of psi phenornena there are psycho­physical as well as trascendentall causes.

Ivan Lepes is a member of the Instituto Argentino de Parapsicologia [Argentine Institute of Parapsychology]. In his paper Entomology and parapsychology: An ex­periment with the Drosophila melanogas­ter fly, he used selected flies showing psi ability. "Sender" flies had access to abun­dant food, this being associated with either a light or dark condition. "Receiver" flies had to choose between light or dark in search for food. The posibility of EM transmission was tested by doing experi­ments at 5 metres. and a 1,000 metres. The results were significant.

A prestigious Argentinian physician, Dr. Samuel Tamopolsky, summarized his personal experience concerning whether rural healers cure and in any case, what is the mechanism of the healing process. Tarnopolsky added the placebo effect and the conditional reflex, and gave a large bib­liography.

Referring to parapsychology in the context of psychology, Hector del Valle introduced parapsychological studies of several psychologists, such as Gustav Fechner, Pierre Janet, William James, Gardner Murphy, among others, including several Argentinian psychologists involved in the field of parapsychology. Psychologist Daniel E. Gomez Montanelli, editor of the spiritist journal Ciencias del Espiritu, considered in his paper "extracerebral memory and cases suggestive of reincar­nation". Further studies had been carried out by lan Stevenson (in US), Hamendra Nat Banerjee (in India), and Hernani Gui­maraes Andrade (in Brasil), about subjects remembening past lives. In the opinion of Gomez Montanelli, the study of possible reincarnation cases is among the most diffi­cult in parapsychology. To produce a sys­tematic methodology for this type of investigation is a constant preoccupation. Alternative hypotheses may also consid­ered, namely, deliberate fraud, pseudo­memory, genetic memory, ESP or Super­ESP, and finally, reincarnation.

Marcelo di Tullio and Juan Gimeno, in the field of survival research, introduced a transcommunication technique as an anomaly to be explained. It would also include effects produced over fax ma­chines, computers, TV sets, or any electronic equipment. Like the grand phenomena of the past, interpretations range from absolute skepticism, to the construction of a new paradigm that an­swers more questions than the present one about life after death.

I introduced a further report about a multivariate analysis of a clairvoyance ses­sion. A single session between a clairvoy­ant and a "client" (a volunteer) was studied and analysed in an attempt to explain the phenomena taking place in such an inter­action. The psychic and the "client" each carried a cardiac monitor, and a battery of psychological tests were used to obtain a psychodiagnosis of both subjects. More research of this nature is needed to elabo­rate a better procedure and to further con­firm the unconscious character of psi function.

Alejandro Parra gave an up‑to‑date survey of parapsychological activity around the world. He mentioned new techniques that have reinforced scientific proof of ESP/PK processes, meta‑analysis, micro‑PK, and bio‑PK effect, using bio‑PK in self‑healing and medicine in general, International communication, and new avenues in the study of survival research were also covered. Finally, Jorge Vil­lanueva spoke about José Fernández, who was a pioneer in Argentinian parapsychol­ogy who deserves our tribute.

PARRA, ALE­JANDRO (1990). Historia de la parapsicología en Argentina [History of parapsychology in the Argentine]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Author, 1990. Pp. 91. [Reviewed by Stanley Krippner. In Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research Vol. 86, January 1992].

The parapsychological literature is basically an English‑language liter­ature. In part, this is justifiable because most of the rigorous experimental and nonexperimental research has been carried out either in English­speaking countries or in countries where the authors have a command of English fluent enough to place their articles in the major parapsychological journals. In addition, these countries represent the industrial, technologi­cal, ‑developed‑ nations where at least a few people have enough job security to pursue parapsychological interests on either a part‑time or full­time basis. However, some key parapsychological research studies have been carried out in non‑English speaking and/or "developing‑ countries as well. In addition, historians of parapsychology need information about the worldwide development of the field. Therefore, Alejandro Parra's com­prehensive survey of Argentine parapsychology comes as a pleasant‑and important‑surprise.

The History of Parapsychology in the Argentine serves three key func­tions. It surveys the history of Argentine parapsychology; it discusses the social milieu in which Argentine parapsychology developed; and it under­scores key investigators and their findings.

Parra divides his historical survey into four general periods: spiritism (1869‑1896), mesmerism (1896‑1924), metapsychics (which can be translated as psychical studies) (1924‑1953), and parapsychology (be­ginning about 1953). The parapsychological era has three subdivisions: parapsychology in private institutions (1953‑1960), in university settings (1960‑1970), and in various settings outside of universities (beginning about 1970).

Parra claims that there were two subdivisions in the spiritism era: 1869 to 1877 and 1877 to 1896. The first phase was marked by the impact of Allan Kardec's writings, which made an even greater impression in neigh­boring Brazil. Kardee was a French educator whose best known works, The Spirit's Book and‑The Medium's Book, provided a world view as well as a pair of manuals for "spiritists" (a term that was coined to distinguish them from the ‑spiritualists‑ operating in the United States). Spiritism was highly organized by 1877 and eventually registered some 15,000 followers. But an Argentine Society of Magnetism was formed in 1896, which sponsored research on purported psychic phenomena produced by the –magnetic passes– developed by another French practitioner‑Franz Anton Mesmer. The society had its own laboratory and eventually meta­morphosized into the Scientific Society of Psychic Studies (i.e., Meta­psychics), which began to interfere with the European psychical research societies. Psychic photography was scrutinized in the first decade of the 1900s, as were physical mediumship and telepathic communication.

From a sociological point of view, Western European movements, es­pecially those of France, strongly influenced various aspects of Argentine life. Another organization, the Scientific Society for Psychical Studies, was established in 1912 with the French Nobel laureate (and psychical researcher) Charles Richet as honorary president. According to Parra, Richet used the term metapsychics or psychical studies to refer to the science that studies phenomena which seem to operate as a result of unknown forces. The popularity of metapsychics increased after the First World War left Argentines a legacy of disillusionment and despair that needed an antidote. Books about spiritism and mesmerism continued to be published, and the historical eras identified by Parra were far from discrete. Again, they reflected a European influence felt to be intellectually sophisticated. This link with the intellectual tradition brought parapsychol­ogy into several Argentine universities, but other social forces eventually terminated academic laboratory work and courses.

The United States began to influence Argentine parapsychology once the research work of J. B. Rhine became known. A variety of institutes at­tempted to replicate and extend Rhine's experiments, and Parra identifies several individuals who led this initiative. They include Orlando Canavesio (1915‑1957), a psychiatrist who studied the EEG correlates of ESP per­formance; José Fernández (1893‑1967), an engineer who applied proba­bility theory to ESP research; J. R. Musso (1917‑1989), an economist and psychologist who conducted sheep/goat tests with school children and coauthored a highly regarded free‑response ESP test; E. Novillo‑Paulí (1919‑1989), a Jesuit priest who studied PK influence on plants; and the best known contemporary Argentine parapsychologists, Naurn Kreiman and Dora lvnisky, who have been instrumental in maintaining the publi­cation of Cuadernos de Parapsicologia and who (together or separately) have conducted a variety of ESP experiments studying such variables as memory, emotion, and feedback.

Parra has done an exemplary piece of scholarly research, and his book should give salience to the neglected field of Latin American parapsychol­ogy. He has nicely documented European and North American influences on Argentine thought, research, and practice, but he has left the reader uninformed as to whether or not a characteristic Argentine mode ever developed. Parapsychology in the United States attempted to demonstrate its rigor by aping the behavioristic paradigm for several decades; one might speculate whether Latin Americans found phenomenology, fieldwork, and/ or participant observation more congruent with their culture, producing data that were equally rigorous but perhaps richer in meaning and infor­mation.

It also would have been useful for Parra to summarize the major ac­complishments of Argentine parapsychology, as demonstrated by the num­ber of citations in English‑language literature reviews of articles by Musso, Novillo Pauli, Kreiman, and others. He also could have tabulated the types of research methods used by Argentine investigators as reported in their publications; this would have given the reader a clue as to whether or not a national style exists or ever existed. Nor does he address the divisive­ness that appears to characterize contemporary Argentinean parapsychology.

Nevertheless, Parra has produced a groundbreaking book that contains several unique facets. His historical survey is embellished by quotations from the transcripts of a pertinent legislative debate, and by the revelation that at one point government officials were associated with the field (but, mercifully, he omits discussion of the involvement of Isabel Peffin with an astrologer during her brief term as head of state).

There are few countries in the world in which parapsychology can claim to have established scientific roots. The hallmarks of this claim are one or more professional organizations, one or more scientific journals, and a body of parapsychological researchers. Parra has elevated Argentina to this small assemblage‑an assembly not much larger than the highly vaunted nuclear club and one that future historians might laud as having made a more noble contribution to human knowledge and achievement.

Subir

English Article: Parapsychology in Argentina

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (1995). Research aspects and social situation of the parapsychology in Argentina: Brief history and future posibilities. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 60, 214-228.

Abstract. In the past, Argentina has made great progress in parapsychology, placing itself as the second country in the Americas, after the USA, with antecedents in psychical research (Beloff, 1990). Now the pioneers are gone. They were the ones who contributed a great number of experimental research and theoretical essays, cited frequently by prestigious American and European parapsychologists. In this article the most important antecedents will be summarized and present perspectives shown that may be useful to those who wish to know the development of parapsychology in Argentina. The early interest for these studies peaked‑at the academic levelabout 1930, with exploratory studies of the physiological states of good psychics. Parapsychology in Argentina is divided into four chronological phases: (1) spiritist (or spiritualist), between 1870 and 1896; (2) mesmerism, between 1896 and 1924; (3) the early psychical research, which is called metapsychic in the LatinAmerican countries, between 1924 and 1953; and (4) Rhinean parapsychology. In this paper, these two last stages are divided and analysed in three phases: (a) private institutionalization, (b) university expansion, and (c) an analysis of the present situation concerning the quality of parapsychological information and some common difficulties (Parra, 1990).

INTRODUCTION

There are various aspects that can be considered concerning parapsychology in Argentina. For several years I have been collecting information that was widely dispersed, and have put it together in a book I have written (Parra, 1990). The history of parapsychology in every Latin‑American country has developed in a manner similar to that in Argentina. The surge of spiritualism marks, at least in part, the urge for research on paranormal phenomena. The first signs of spiritualism appeared in 1877, when the first centre was founded, the Sociedad Espiritista Constancia (Constancia Society) which attracted numerous Argentine intellectuals and scientists. Among others, the American medium Henry Slade was invited to participate in spiritualist sèances and, in 1888, the physical medium, Camilo Brediff, produced materializations, ectoplasm and other notable phenomena. Another medium of note was Osvaldo Fidanza; records of his sèances are still preserved (Serie, 1910). His feats were closely followed in Europe, and Charles Richet was greatly interested in the experimental results obtained by Argentine psychical researchers with Fidanza. Around 1905 and 1918, Fijanza became the most closely studied medium of the beginning of the century (Parra, 1990).

These studies were taken as a challenge by the prestigious Argentine chemist Ovidio Rebaudi, who founded the Sociedad Magnetológica Argentina (Argentine Mesmerism Society) in 1896, with the aim of repeating the experiments of Mesmer's animal magnetism, a subject of great interest in Europe. Rebaudi published the Revista de Magnetología (journal of Mesmerism), of which a few issues were published between 1896 and 1910, until the Society was changed into the Instituto Metapsíquico (Psychical Research Institute), which published the Revista de Meta‑Psiquica Experimental (Argentine Journal of Psychical Research), which survived for about ten years. Ovidio Rebaudi, together with several collaborators, operated within the spiritualist context, but emulated the (British) Society for Psychical Research. Although they went through many economic difficulties, spiritualists felt a profound respect for his work, because Rebaudi kept an 'animist' (and not spiritualist) position when confronting mediumistic phenomena (Rebaudi, 1899).

Some years after, the creation of the Instituto de Psicología (Institute of Psychology), at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires, took place on 24th November 1931. This important event was the work of the psychiatrist, Enrique Mouchet, who had been greatly impressed by the work of the French investigator Eugene Osty. The direction of the Department of the so‑called Psicologia Paranormall (Paranormal Psychology) was assigned to Dr Mouchet himself, and his work on behalf of early psychical research was important. He stimulated other psychiatrists to investigate this field considered 'occult', and was the first university professor to integrate these studies in Argentine universities. In 1932, Dr Efrom and several colleagues performed a series of experiments with Miss Irma Maggi (1964) (Villanueva, 1992). Starting on 7th April 1932, a number of sessions devoted to psychical research were conducted mainly under the direction of Dr Gonzalo Bosch, (director of the Hospicio de las Mercedes, now Neuropsychiatric Hospital José Tomás Borda). Professors of the Facultad de Medicina (Faculty of Medicine) were invited to observe research with one of Argentina's best‑known psychics, such as Enrique Marchesinii from the city of Córdoba. Marchesini was a psychic, and was purportedly infallible in the diagnosis of disease by just touching an object belonging to the sick owner.

Another group of spiritualists founded the Circulo Espiritualista ATMAN (ATMAN Spiritualist Circle) in 1933, whose objective was experimentation with mediums from the spiritualist community. This centre, founded and directed by Engineer José Salvador Fernández, developed the study of spiritualist phenomena relevant to ESP research (but still within a spiritualist context). That same year, Professor Eduardo del Ponte gave two historic lectures attended by numerous personalities from the Facultad de Ciencias Naturales (Faculty of Natural Sciences). Experiments based on the 'psychic reading of an object' were done by Dr Luis Maria Ravagnan, an odontologist who, surprised by his own results, dedicated the rest of his life to the study of psychology (Fernández, 1963). Among the members of the ATMAN Circle was Maria Amanda Ravagnan (sister of Dr Luis Maria Ravagnan, and wife of Engineer Fernández), who demonstrated ESP of amazing precision. From 1934, Fernández did numerous studies on healing by laying‑on of hands with the medium Maria de Meyrelles in trance, controlled by Fernández's physician friends. On one occasion, this medium 'diagnosed' a generalized eczema of a physician who indeed had the disease.

When J. B. Rhine came to the fore in this field in 1930 (Mouchet had already incorporated these scientific studies at the university level), he kept up an active correspondence with Fernández, to find out about parapsychological studies in progress in Argentina. This notable engineer also experimented with good results with his wife, and on one occasion, in front of Dr Juan Antonio Schroeder (at the time, director of an important medical centre), Maria Amanda saw in one of the doctor's patients a problem in the kidneys. "Perform some clinical analysis –said the psychic, "because she has some albumen, a product of her disease." In fact the analysis gave a positive reading for the presence of albumen (Fernández, 1963). However, Fernández's results would not have been acceptable from a scientific point of view. The sessions from which data were gathered lacked elementary critical precautions: possible sensory cues were not eliminated and blind controls were not used in the evaluation of his ESP research. Nevertheless, Engineer Fernández's studies have an important significance within the historical context because they were the first attempt to apply statistical methods to the study of ESP in Argentina.

In 1946, another group of physicians arose under the leadership of Dr Orlando Canavesio, who founded the Asociación Médica de Metapsiquica Argentina (Argentine Association for Medical and Psychical Research). Among his correspondents, Canavesio included several scientists connected with the field of parapsychology, such as J. B. Rhine and Ferdinando Cazzamalli. Canavesio was a profound scholar, not only in his field, but also in psychical research, since psychology in our country was not yet an academic subject. Psychiatry was for him a way of being closer to the sciences of conduct than was possible in any other discipline. For this, Canavesio utilized a powerful new auxiliary: the newly‑arrived electroencephalography equipment (invented by Hans Berger in 1929), in the use of which he was one of the few experts, knowing its importance for the development of diagnosis in mental disease. The specific application of these techniques in psychical research was aimed, according to Canavesio's hypothesis, at discovering the variable that could determine whether the supposed psychic state was normal or paranonnal. His orientation was towards the field of spiritualist practices. Orlando Canavesio performed notable experiments with the clairvoyant Enrique Marchessini, the dowser Luis Acquavella (also a physician and Canavesio's collaborator), Anne de Carrell (wife of the distinguished Nobel Laureate, Alexis Carrell) and also Federico Poletti and Conrado Castiglione (nicknamed Nostradamus).

In January 1948, the Department of Public Health, under Dr Ramón Carrillo, and Dr. Augusto Robles Gorriti, created the Instituto de Psicopatología Aplicada (IPA) (Institute of Applied Psychopathology (or Abnormal Psychology) (Estatutos del Instituto de Psicopatología Aplicada, 1948). The plan of action was simple, similar to those of other centres of psychical research. During the period called Extraoficial or Scientific Support, divided into five stages, the Institute obtained optimal conditions, technical, legal, location, etc. Also, as an institution, they had clear objectives: library, archives, publications, and exchange of information, not only in metapsychic, but also medical as well as interrelations between both fields. In the period of Social Consolidation and Scientific Support, divided into two phases, the interests leaned towards the incorporation of metapsychic in the universities, mainly in the faculties of medicine across the country. On the other hand, the IPA had to control, with some energy, the garrulous activities of spiritism, quackery, and their possible influence on mental disease. The Confereración Espiritista Argentina (Argentine Spiritualist Confederation), as representative of all the spiritualist centres of the country, made an agreement with representatives of the IPA concerning mutual assistance.

Orlando Canavesio's doctoral dissertation, Electroencefalografia en los Estados Metapsíquicos (Electroencephalography in the Psychic States), was done at the parapsychology section of the Department of Public Health. The thesis was completed in 1951 and approved by the National University of C6rdoba (Canavesio, 1951). After this notable psychiatrist obtained his doctorate, his interest in psychical research increased, resulting in a number of lectures and interviews with psychics, healers, dowsers, and others. Several EEG recordings were made, notably that taken from Eric Couternay Luck (known as Mr. Luck), one of the first to allow a study of his EEG when acting parapsychically'.

According to Canavesio (1948): “… the metapsychical state (ESP) is a physiological state produced by specific causes acting on the predisposition, characterized by a psychosomatic manifestation in which, or because of which, the faculty works.” Mr Luck, who was not conditioned by any belief, proceeded to achieve the metapsychical state, as the electrodes of the EEG were connected, and the suggestion was made that he should not think, and instead try to relax and achieve a state of psychophysical relaxation. In the graphical recording of the EEG, alpha waves disappeared to make it more or less regular, and decrease about 6 0% of the amplitude. The duration of such a state was about three to six seconds, after which information began to come in. A second experiment was performed with the help of Armando King, a dowser from the city of Cordoba.

Canavesio thought that the dowsing phenomenon was better suited for EEG registration, and he argued for the use of dowsers by the national government. Armando King seemed to be a good dowser, very practical and potent in his perceptions, localizing underground water for numerous geological, hydraulic and mining companies. In San Juan, he had collaborated with the Ministerio de Obras Públicas (Ministry of Public Works) and the Directorate of Aeronautic Infrastructures since 1947. He also was hired to solve an emergency problem in obtaining water at E1 Tostado city (Santa Fe). Canavesio always welcomed critics, especially if they were physicians or other health science specialists. Brief articles were published in which a critical view was expressed of orthodox medicine dealing with the challenge implied by considering psychological subjects in an area where psychology was still trying to enter the academic world in Argentina. He published a report about the EEG records of Alfredo Parodi, a psychometrist of Rosario city. The report comes to the conclusion that under the state A‑B it is possible to observe the alpha rhythm, but under psychic state B‑C the frequency could not be determined exactly, although in some records it is possible to observe that it reaches 11‑13 cycles per second. Evident changes in the electric rhythm of the cortex are registered. It becomes irregular, and the voltage decreases by 50‑70 %.

Canavesio participated in numerous conferences, being one of the most active scientists of his time. He lectured at the Chair of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine on psychical research, and at a conference held at the Institute of Applied Psychopathology on "The Parapsychological Science", in which he presented psychics such as Mr Luck and Dr Luis Acquavella, also a dowser, both of whom gave practical demonstrations. In 1953, Canavesio was invited to participate in the First International Conference of Parapsychological Studies in Utrecht (The Netherlands) with his dissertation topic, and for the first time Argentina was represented in one of the most decisive events in the history of world parapsychology (Canavesio, 1954). He also participated in the congress of metapsychic in Bologna (Italy) held by the Italian Scientific Association of Metapsychic.

Unfortunately, all these efforts had little outcome, particularly after the fall of the democratic government of General Juan Domingo Perón in 1955 and the political crisis of the moment (in other English‑speaking countries, many people tend to think of the late Perón as just another 'South American dictator', rather than as the leader of a democratic govemment, but this notion is incorrect because Perón was elected three times by the Argentinians). It must be pointed out that psychologists (and not physicians) were the ones most interested in parapsychology, because it studied anomalous psychological processes (ESP) and not organic paranormal processes, the object of study by neurophysiology or psychosomatic medicine. Also, Dr Canavesio made EEG records, but no parapsychological investigations of scientific value emerged; this was because the work lacked an adequate methodology, for it had used the qualitative approach that was typical of the older psychical research.

Consequently, as the result of a discussion on both. counts, Fernández and Canavesio founded the Sociedad Argentina de Parapsicología (SAP) (Argentine Parapsychology Society), with Fernández as President. This group included all those interested in parapsychology. The by‑laws and objects of the SAP show the interest that Argentinians showed very early for parapsychological research. In the beginning, articles, papers and other activities of the society were unduly influenced by spiritualist thinking, but this was somewhat corrected by the influence of the foreign members, who included J. B. Rhine, Gardner Murphy, S. G. Soal and Ferdinando Cazzamalli. One of Femández's best subjects was his son‑in‑law, Dr Ronald Warburton, an odontologist, who several times obtained 22 out of 25 hits with the standard deck of ESP cards and, on one occasion, all 25 of them. Musso (1954) also performed experiments with Warburton.

The experiments of the Grupo La Plata (La Plata Group), between the years 1950 and 1955, no doubt constitute an interesting aspect in the history of parapsychology in Argentina about which not much has been written. This group was formed by José María Feola and other young intellectuals interested in the psychical phenomena of spiritualism. The group produced numerous phenomena, such as table levitations without contact and in full light, raps, luminous phenomena, and messages with intelligent statements, including telepathic communications. Because of the reproducibility of the phenomena, the group was able to convince well‑known university professors of the reality of PK, especially through the clean table levitations in full light. Drs Canavesio and Musso participated in numerous experiments, and Armando King also visited the group once, since he had never seen such clear‑cut phenomena (Feola, 1975; 1993).

First Stage: Private Institutionalization

In our country there was an old institution, the Asociación LUMEN de Investigaciones Psíquicas y Estudios Filosóficos (LUMEN Association for Psychical Research and Philosophical. Studies), founded in 1886. To this group belonged a large number of people who studied spiritualist phenomena, among them its Director, Benjamín Odell. They had good facilities, including a large auditorium, and a considerable number of members. In ajoint session in April 1953, la Sociedad Argentina de Parapsicología (SAP) and the Asociación LUMEN decided to join forces and start the new Instituto Argentino de Para­psicología (IAP) (Argentine Institute of Parapsychology), amalgamating the membership of both institutions.

Unfortunately, differences within the newly‑formed IAP soon became evident. On one side were the spiritists of the ex‑SAP, who reincorporated authorities of the spiritist movement with parapsychologists, and on the other side members of the ex‑LUMEN, who, in disagreement with the 'spiritualist' posture, created a new institution, the Asociación Amigos de la Parapsicología (AAP) (Friends of Parapsychology Association), under the leadership of Odell and Musso. The new AAP published four numbers of a quarterly journal, the Revista de Parapsicología (Parapsychology Review), which ended in 1956. Then, Musso (1956) designed an experiment with mediums of various spiritist groups with a double purpose: (a) psychological, to see whether the spirit personalities manifested differed from those of the mediums in their normal state, and (b) parapsychological, to see whether through these experiments paranormal knowledge could be proved. He used C. G. Jung's Word Association test, using 50 stimulus words from 200 that Jung hirnself used, which reveals certain personality traíts. Parapsychologically, the idea was to obtain data about their identity as living persons from the personalities manifested. Musso also performed experiments with schoolchildren (302 students) with ESP cards in opaque envelopes, relating the psychological attitudes between students and teachers, confirming the results of Gertrude Schmeidler (Musso, 1965).

In the meantime, Engineer Fernández, with Luis María Di Cristóforo Postiglioni, developed a thesis entitled Fundamentos Científicos y Filosóficos de la Supervivencia con Reencarnación (Scientific and Philosophical Found­arions of Survival with Reincarnation), which was presented in Buenos Aires. In this paper, the value and contribution of the parapsychological hypothesis in favour of survival was discussed (Fernández & Di Cristóforo Postiglioni, 1957). That same year, Musso published a note about Extrasensory Perception in the Revista de Educación (Journal of Education), official organ of the Ministry of Education of the Province of Buenos Aires. This paper was the first to appear in an official journal of the National Government, analysing the recognition of the existence of ESP (Musso, 1957).

A great loss to Argentine parapsychology then took place. Travelling from Buenos Aires to Mar del Plata in his car, Orlando Canavesio had an accident, as a consequence of which his left leg had to be amputated. When he seemed to be on his way to recovery, Dr Musso visited him to express his relief. But Canavesio looked Musso in the eye and sald, "No, Ricardo, I am going to die." He died in the early hours of the next day. He was only 38 years old.

Second Stag: Expansion through the University

In this stage, which we have called "Expansion through the University", the difference from the one before is the increasing parapsychological activity throughout university teaching. The most active at this stage were J. Ricardo Musso and his wife, psychologist Mirta Granero, both in research as well as in university‑level teaching. An important goal was the methodological grounding in parapsychology of students in pursuit of psychology degrees. The first step was a course of parapsychology offered at the University of Litoral for fourthyear psychology students given by Dr Musso. One of the problems that made it difficult to integrate this course with the existing curriculum was the fact that clinical psychology (i.e. psychoanalysis) had no links with the statistical methodology which is indispensable in parapsychology. To circumvent this problem,Musso was namedprofessor of the chair of psycho statistics, obtaining a more active participation of the students, who gained a clearer and more precise understanding of scientific methodology in parapsychology. One year later, Mirta Granero was designated professor of statistics and parapsychology at the same university. In 1963, Bruno A.L. Fantoni, a lawyer, gave parapsychology courses at the Free Faculty of the city of C6rdoba, and, when this Faculty was integrated with the Argentine Catholic University (in 1970), the subject and its teacher continued as before (Fantoni, 1974).

Among numerous studies completed at this time, we can mention the work of Musso (1967) with the medium Ofelia B. Scheaffer in Rosario. Several objects were presented to the subject, and her responses %‑,‑ere analysed with the Pratt‑Birge technique, giving significant results. Other reports were those published by Musso and Granero (1965) on the ESP tests with children; a longdistance ESP experiment with subjects at a military base in Antarctica with the collaboration of 20 countries (Musso, 1968); a review published by the University of Buenos Aires, Contribución de la Parapsicologia al Conocimiento del Hombre (Contribution of parapsychology to the knowledge of man) (Musso, 1963); and finally, in 1969, an investigation in which a subject with notable psychic ability, the psychiatrist José Baldomero Muratti, participated. He did a test of ESP with drawings placed in opaque envelopes, from one room to an adjacent one. Apparently, the subject identified the drawings correctly under three different conditions or situations. This experiment was published in the Revista Argentina de Psicología (Argentine Journal of Psychology) (Musso & Granero, 1972).

In 1966, the board of directors of the Department of Psychology decided to include parapsychology as one of the elective subjects, and some private universities felt motivated to include parapsychology in their curricula. For example, the Universidad del Museo Social Argentino (University of the Argentine Social Museum) asked the 1AP to name a professor to give a course of parapsychology. This was done by a physician, Dr Harold Elgan Horwitz, and later on by Engineer Draier, who were the only ones well‑versed in the methodology of parapsychology. The same year, Aria Maria Perrota (trained in parapsychology at the University of Rosario) was designated professor of parapsychology at the Universidad Argentina John F. Kennedy. This has continued to the present day under Maria Elena Pereyra Valtier for fifth year psychology students. Also in this year, General Juan Carlos Ongania took over the government. The military intervened in the universities, introducing changes that left parapsychology as a non‑required subject, which led to its elimination. Professors who were teaching courses and organizing conferences were forced to resign, among them Dr Emilio Servadio, who had been invited to talk about parapsychology and psychoanalysis. In the end, parapsychology remained only at the University John F. Kennedy and the Institute of Parapsychology of the Catholic University of C6rdoba, both private universities (Musso, 1973).

By then, only two persons were devoted full‑time to parapsychology: Dr Bruno A. L. Fantoni and Mirta Granero. We should point out that those who enlisted for regular courses offered by the IAP did not attend because of a scientific interest in the subject‑matter, but rather out of curiosity or to find a scientific answer to their beliefs. Others, realizing that these studies did not offer work or professional security, requiring instead specialized studies, promptly abandoned the Institute. The same thing happened with the parapsychological subjects, but not the experimental, which required the use of stringent statistical methods. With the passing of time, parapsychology was discarded from the national universities, and slowly from the private ones as well. The Catholic University of C6rdoba moved the Institute of Parapsychology, under the direction of Enrique Novillo Pauli, to the Universidad del Salvador (University of Salvador) in Buenos Aires, until his death in 1989.

Third Stage: Present Stage

This period lacks initiatives at university level, contrary to what had happened the previous decade. In March 19 70 the Jesuit priest Enrique Novillo Pauli obtained a fellowship from the Organization of American States to work at the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (FRNM) in Durham, where he stayed for two years under the direction of J. B. Rhine and his research team to participate in some parapsychological research. Some years later, Novillo Pauli reported bio‑PK experiments carried out by the author on the growth of plants, using unselected persons of both sexes as subjects. In less than three years, there were 33 experiments. The author considers that his experiments prove that, under certain conditions of competition between the groups, differences in the magnitude of the PK effect as a function of the sex of the subjects were produced. At about the same time, Professor Naum Kreiman and Dora Ivnisky published the quarterly Cuademos de Parapsicología (Notebooks of Parapsychology), which still appears regularly. The work of Kreiman and Iviiisky was concerned with experimental research in ESP under various psychological conditions and with the emphasis on statistical evaluation (Kreiman, 1975; 1978; 1982; 1984).

In 1971, J. Ricardo Musso was invited by the Parapsychology Foundation of New York to give a talk on Parapsychology in Argentina: From 1930‑1971, as part of the International Conference held in Saint Paul de Vence (France). Musso went through historical successes and significant activities of Argentine parapsychology during these four decades (Musso, 1973). Novillo Paulí participated in the 24th Annual Conference of Parapsychology, organized by the Parapsychology Foundation in 1975, where he presented a paper on Parapsychology and Education, in which he analysed the situation of parapsychology up to that year, its didactic level, the degree of preparation of the students and the teaching at the national universities (Novillo Pauli, 1975).

At about this time, a legislative debate became a national topic, when Deputy Luis Alberto Sobrino Aranda presented a project to modify the penal code, which was approved by the Penal Legislation Committee. Deputy Sobrino then carried on with an initiative to help parapsychological research. After long discussions, the government agreed to give twenty thousand dollars to the IAP to carry on research in this field (Parra, 1990). As a consequence, Sobrino Aranda gave a report to the then President of Argentina, General Juan Domingo Per6n, detailing all the basic aspects developed in the course of parliamentary discussions. At the initiative of Julio Cesar Di Liscia, the Sociedad de Estudios Parapsico1ógico (Society for Parapsychological Studies) was founded in C6rdoba, where experimental research and theoretical studies were done by Di Liscia and a team of collaborators (MEMORIAS, 1962‑1965). Di Liscia was an important contributor to Argentine paraps‑y‑chology, not only because of his great interest but also because of his research capability.

Other activities carried the parapsychological concept to more popular levels, but were limited to general information and the theoretical developments in this field. Such was the Primer Congreso Argentino de Parapsicologia (First Argentine Congress of Parapsychology) in 1981, attended by several academic personalities and a large crowd of the public. During the congress an agreement was signed, Documento de Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires Document), in which an attempt was made to unify conflicting concepts in parapsychology. Similar activities can be mentioned, such as the Jornadas Cientificas Interdisciplinarias (Interdisciplinary Scientific Workshop), concerning psychology, medicine and parapsychology in the academic context; and Primer Encuentro de Parapsicologia (First Encounter with Parapsychology), sponsored by Enrique Novillo Pauli's Institute of Parapsychology of the Universidad del Salvador (Parra, 1990).

However, little can be said about the scientific development of parapsychology in Argentina. Nevertheless, it is of interest to obtain information about some of the work of Latin‑American parapsychologists, who are practically unknown to the rest of the world (see Rueda, 1991). They are even unknown to some among us as some of them were neverpublished in specialized journals and some professionals from other areas of science are afraid to get involved in parapsychology. Frankly, 1 doubt whether 1 would possess the cool detachment that a historian would need to describe an aspect of Argentine parapsychology which has become, at least for the last ten years, a part of my, own personal history. However, as we have shown in this article, this interest has stimulated communications between Argentine and foreign parapsychologists (Alvarado, 1989; Beloff, 1990; Krippner, 1992; Parra, 1990; Villanueva, 1990). To appreciate more thoroughly the present situation I will classify some sources of access to the information in the field, in the hope that this will help it to be understood more clearly. Four aspects of it can be discussed:

a) Information and Misinformation in Parapsychology

For several decades, parapsychology in Argentina developed with a parallel background to the other behavioural sciences, which stimulated the analytical interest (i.e. psychoanalysis, social psychology, etc.), and on this basis important therapists found a fertile terrain for theoretical innovations, in spite of frequent opposition from certain social or political sectors. In a sense, parapsychology was born in the middle of this group of new theories, and the present popularization of the word parapsychology in the communication media, daily conversation, and university classroom, is not surprising in the same way as had happened with psychoanalysis. The difference has its roots in the social and cultural situation in which they developed. In the sixties, psychoanalysis became not only a psychotherapeutic popular attraction, but it also polarized the interest of intellectuals and professionals. As a well‑known journalist commented (Horvath, 19 74, p. 12):

... psychoanalysis invaded the mind and heart of Argentinians. There is not in this city a porteño who has not lain down on a couch: from neurotic bus driver to the most cultivated writer. Everybody agrees unconditionally to relate his intimacies to the mysterious magician with beard and pipe.

Is there any difference between that psychoanalyst and the 'parapsychologist' who offers his services of clairvoyance during office hours? The popularization of parapsychology, and what perhaps is worse, the absolute absence of knowledge of the basic objectives of this discipline, forces us to face with rigour the procedure for providing information about, not only the scientific scope, but also the social influences of this subject. One does not need more evidence than that provided by the media to exemplify the misinformation that causes the paradoxical presence of healers, clairvoyants, tarot experts, quacks, mentalists, among innumerable other denominations, which invoke for themselves the title of 'parapsychologist'. This position is shared by an ample spectrum of scholars of this social problem (Villanueva, 1990) and it has been noted by American parapsychologists (Krippner, 1992), who have described Argentine parapsychology as being confronted by two problems: first, that the few parapsychologists who work seriously are separated; second, that the popular and the academic images of parapsychology are so mixed up that it is hard to distinguish where one begins and where the other ends. Internationally, these two causes do not escape parapsychological observers from other countries, and it is a common crisis. Hence, pseudo‑ parapsychological activity is not an exclusive characteristic of the 'third world', although other countries may disguise it better.

b) Pseudo ‑Science and Pseudo‑Parapsychology

Historically, our country has shown this trend since the seventies, although this kind of situation has roots in the spiritualist stage. Yesterday, the ideological enemies of the parapsychologists were the spiritualists; now the sceptics are. In spite of that, parapsychology shares with the other sciences a cultural crisis. One aspect of this is the proliferation of congresses of parapsychology, a socio‑cultural phenomenon that reveals the degree of public interest in the possible therapeutic aspects that parapsychology may offer. These sorts of activities are promoted by single individuals or by small groups, supported by strong publicity, operating by co‑ordination and grouping of professional and non ‑professional activity or with therapy they want to publicize. These activities, usually annual and taking place at weekends, have been closely pursued for the last thirteen years, with significant increases during these last years (in 1981‑1987 there were nearly 45 congresses) (Parra, 1995). This level of propagation has reached saturation during the last five years, but still they keep on organizing them, albeit at a lower level.

Unfortunately, the term 'parapsychology' is indiscriminately abused, and there is a massive commercialization of various divination arts, alternative medicine systems, pseudo ‑religious groups, esoteric literature and other activities. Obviously, in such an environment it would be difficult to attract a scientist, when there is no respectability in parapsychology. The popularization we are referring to exercises a deterrent influence on those for whom parapsychology could become an activity of great scientific interest. At the same time, it is a fundamental reason why university authorities oppose, sometimes energetically, the inclusion of this subject as part of the curriculum. As a consequence, the vicious circle closes up, the snake bites its tail: negative resources are generated in the supply of able professionals to cos‑er the scientific deficit, the interest in parapsychology decreases, and this discourages those who are misinformed about a field whose revenues are practically non‑existent. Then, the possibility of attracting funding, as in those countries with great scientific and technological development (i.e. USA and Europe), is remote.

In contrast, going back to the example already cited, psychoanalysis in Argentina came out the strongerbecause it made climical activity inpsychology more professional and cultivated at a higher level. This came about at a critical stage when psychologists exerted political pressure to the point of almost becoming independent of philosophy and medicine. Independently, it made its activities regular, and overcame the therapeutic and legal limitations in the psychological community as in the case of medicine, neurology and psychiatry. Besides, it enjoyed the collaboration of prestigious foreign psychoanalysts who contributed to the theoretical development and increased literature, which made our country the most important bibliographic source in Ibero‑America. Parapsychology in Argentina (if we consider it as a psychological subject, even if it tends to be independent of psychology) does not enjoy the same benefits that helped establish psychoanalysis (Parra, 1992). Recently, there have been attempts to professionalize the work of this kind of 'parapsychologist', but at the moment there is no official response to such request.

c) Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal (Argentine Journal of Paranormal Psychology)

The sources available for scientific advances and educational resources in parapsychology are few. As we related our history, we saw that our country was rather prolific in scientific bibliography, going back to the beginning of this century with Fernández's Boletin deExperimentaci6n (Research Bulletin), Canavesio's Revista Médica de Metapsiquica (Medical Metapsychic Journal), Musso's Revista de Parapsicología (Parapsychology Review), and other publications which, for various reasons, especially economical, have ceased to exist.

Fortunately, the Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal (RAPP) coordinates the publication of reports written in Spanish about parapsychology and original papers by recognized American, European and Ibero‑American authors (Editorial, 1990). The RAPP is distributed to about four hundred universities, public libraries, institutes and centres of psychology and parapsychology in Argentina, and internationally it exchanges with over fifty journals around the world. Reports of experimental research, theoretical papers, historical and philosophical essays, book reviews and details of activities are published. In our country we have very few professionals who have devoted their time to psi activities, but some of them collaborate impartially with the RAPP, including jos6 Maria Feola, Mirta Granero, Anibal Pedroza, Victor Wasserman, Samuel Tarnopolsky, and the valuable contribution of jorge Villnueva, a distinguished writer on the historical and philosophical implications of parapsychology.

d) Difficulties of Access to Information and Ways for Better Relationships

This problem is not unique to parapsychology. Science in Latin America suffers a similar process. However, there has been an important growth in the second part of this century, several times greater than during the first half. To mention all the impediments encountered by Spanish‑speaking parapsychologists compared with those of their colleagues in Europe or the US would not necessarily reflect a common difficulty, because of the lack of unity of criteria and goals pursued by some Hispanic parapsychologists. However, lack of funds is a common difficulty. Some of those working in this field have been forced to offer regular courses to the general public in order to obtain support for their studies. Others have had to use whatever free time they had available as they supported themselves through professional or other activities, As a consequence, due to scarce resources for full‑time research, there is a limitation of access to the scientific information which is abundantly produced in developed countries. In the case of third‑world countries, where fluctuations in economic policy on top of social conflicts and cultural prejudices are the secondary effects of a society in crisis, there are special difficulties, besides those that are universal, when it comes to gaining access to sources of information in parapsychology.

e) Currect Perspective

Put together, the scenario of parapsychology in Argentina is not very encouraging. The field has a rich history in this country (Parra, 1990), but it does not have academic recognition. The Universidad del Salvador (University of Salvador) gave it up after Enrique Novillo Pauli died in 1989. Now it survives only in a private university, Universidad John F. Kennedy, as a fifth year subject in psychology, and in the Universidad Nacional del Mar del Plata, where the topic of 'Paranormal Psychology' has been included as part of psychology.

There are many popular institutes of parapsychology, although only a few do serious work. Examples are the Centro de Estudios Modernos (Centre of Modern Studies), the Instituto de Psicología Paranormal (Institute of Paranormal Psychology) and the Instituto Argentino de Parapsicologia (Argentine of Parapsychology), There are only two research laboratories, the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Sensoriales y Parasensoriales (Laboratory of Sensory and Parasensory Research) and the Instituto Argentino de Psicobiofisica (Argentine Institute of Psychobiophysics) in Rafaela, province of Santa F6. The latter emphasizes psychic healing.

In 1981 we held the Primer Congreso Argentino de Parapsicologia (First Argentine Congress of Parapsychology) and in 1987 the Encuentro de Parapsicologia (Encounter with Parapsychology), organized by the Universidad del Salvador. Towards the end of 1994 there took place the Primer Encuentro Psi 1994: Nuevas Dimensiones de Parapsicología (First Encounter Psi 1994: New Dimensions of Parapsychology), which brought together many independent experimental researchers. There is only one sceptical organization, which publishes a magazine and has had access to TV programmes.

Argentina has only three specialized journals. These are Cuadernos de Parapsicologia (published by Naúm Kreiman), Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal (from 1990) and Ciencias del Espíritu (from 1993). The latter focuses on medical and psychological aspects. There is also an information centre, ALIPsi, or the Agencia Latinoamericana de Informaci6n Psi (Latin American Agencyof Psi Information), which publishes periodical bibliographies.

On the popular level there are many charlatans and much ignorance. As a consequence, most academics are afraid to associate themselves with the field. The term 'paranormal psychology' is less 'violent' and has been used to separate us from the belief that parapsychology is a quasi ‑psychological and pseudo ‑religious therapy with some clinical content used for monetary means. The problem is not unique to our country, but can be found all over Latin America and in other parts of the world.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

How could some of these difficulties be resolved? A possible occasional strategy in this direction could be the publication, annually or bianually, of a bibliographical guide in Spanish that would give the researcher in any sub‑field of parapsychology access to a net of bibliographical references useful at the moment of professional consultation. Parapsychology Sources of Information Center, directed by Rhea A. White, publishes twice a year Exceptional Human Experience, reproducing abstracts of articles from almost all publications specializing in parapsychology. On the other hand, as Villanueva (1990) has pointed out, the absence of specialized bibliographical information is a consequence of lack of funds or grants, which could be overcome if important American parapsychological institutions (within the limitations of their funding and economic commitments) would provide materials published by them. This should not necessarily be considered a 'gift' without a minimum effort on the part of the recipient. Frequently, an exchange (as determined freely by the parties) would greatly stimulate future communications, from which the party with fewer resources would benefit the most. English‑speaking countries do not know much about foreign parapsychological developments. However, even if only occasionally, it is important to mention the work done in any Spanish‑speaking country through journals or newsletters. Certainly, when other colleagues understand the importance‑and obviously are agreed.

With this position we will not be far from removing some of the imperfections own communications as well as improving our sources of information.

Recently have been working on a Hispanic‑speaking psi information centre which is called Agencia Latinoamericana de Información Psi (ALIPsi) (Latin American Agency of Psi Information). It is a computerized database of the of parapsychology published in the Spanish‑ speaking countries. The data resides in a computer because ALIPsi contains the bulk of the parapsychology in the Spanish ‑language journal literature from 1900 to date several hundred articles and the best books about the field. The record of each document in ALIPsi consists of bibliographical information. There is also an Annual Guide, which is in press, plus Bibliographical Searcher Services, audio/video tapes on parapsychology, translation from English to Spanish language, and an index of selected institutes and associations in this field.

A possible future project may be the formation of a national centre of parapsychological research, or an institute to regulate the experiments to be done, staffed with a team of researchers or professionals well trained in methodology. This centre would also be provided with advanced instrumentation. Another possible future scenario would be to restart Chairs of Parapsychology at various universities; first at the private ones, and later the public ones. Parapsychology is a social science which gains with study and research. It will only bear fruit by opening new vistas in the young minds of university professionals, challenging them to learn a new discipline, linked with psychology, medicine, anthropology, philosophy or religion.

We, the Spanish‑speaking parapsychologists, are not a special phenomenon, even if there are particular differences in the objectives we pursue. There can be no doubt that the field that is opening up to research may prove to be a great deal more important than it now appears, and the great majority of unknown researchers, who at present are not yet satisfactorily utilized, may produce important surprises in the not‑too‑distant future.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am grateful to Dr. José Maria Feola for the translation of this article into English and his useful comments.

Instituto de Psicologia Paranormal
Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranonnal
Salta 2015
(113 7) Capital Federal
Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA

Subir

REFERENCES

Alvarado, C. S. (1989) The language barrier in parapsychology. JP 53, 125.

Beloff, J. (1990) Personal communication (12th. November).

Canavesio, 0. (1948) "Historia Metapsiquica" del metagnomo (clarividente‑telépata): Mr Erick Couternay Luck. Revista Médica de Metapsiquica 2 (1).

Canavesio, 0. (1951) Electroencefalografia en los Estados Metapsiquicos. Thesis, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba.

Canavesio, 0. (1954) L'Electroencephalographie dans les états métapsychiques. Metapsichica. ­Supplement to Rivista Italiana di Metapsichica.

Editorial (1990) La Dirección. Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal 1, 5‑6.

Estatutos del Instituto de Psicopatología Aplicada (1948) Revista Médica de Metapsíquica, 2, 8‑12.

Fantoni, B. (1974) Magia y Parapsicología. Buenos Aires: Troquel.

Feola, J. M. (1975) PK: Mind over Matter. Minneapolis: Dillon.

Feola, J.M. (1993) El Grupo de LaPlata. Unpublished paper.

Fernández, J. M. (1963) Más Allá de la Cuarto Dimensión. Buenos Aires: Constancia.

Fernández, J. M. and Di Cristóforo Postiglioni, L. M. (1957) Fundamentos Científicos y Filosóficos de la Supervivencia con Reencarnación. Buenos Aires: Constancia.

Horvath, R. (1974) Los Manosantas. Buenos Aires: Supplement to Revista Siete Dias.

Kreirnan, N. (1975) La interacción entre la memoria y la ESP en un test de asociaciones fuertes y débiles. Cuadernos deParapsicología 8, 1‑8.

Kreiman,N. (1978) Memoria y precognición. Cuadernos de Parapsicología 11, 3‑17.

Kreiman,N. (1982) ESPyrazonamiento. Cuadernos deParapsicología 15, 5‑10.

Kreirnan,N. (1984) Variable volitivay ESP. Cuadernos de Parapsicología 17, 14‑18.

Krippner,S. (1992) Parapsicología: una perspectiva internacional. Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal 3, 44‑53.

Maggi,I. (1964) Meditación, Silencio y Luz. Buenos Aires: privatelvprinted.

MEMORIA (1962‑1965) Instituto de Investigaciones Parapsicológicas de Córdoba. Córdoba: Proceedings privately printed.

Musso,J.R. (1954) En los límites de la psicología. Buenos Aires: Periplo. (2ndedítion, revised by Paidós Editorial, 1965)

Musso, J. R. (1956) Experiencias con médiums en trance. Revista de Parapsicología 2, 3‑12.

Musso,J,R. (1957) La percepción extrasensorial. Revista de Educación 2, 114‑131.

Musso, J. R. (1963) Contribución de la parapsicología al conocimiento del hombre. Revista de la Universidad de Buenos Aires 8(2), 224‑250.

Musso,J.R. (1965) ESP experiments with prirnary school children. JP 29, 75‑88.

Musso, J. R. (1967) Evaluación de seis sesiones exploratorias con material verbal libre. Revista de Parapsicología (Second period) 1, 5 ‑15.

Musso, J. R. (1968) Experimento Antártida de ESP a distancias variables. Proceedings of the Japanese Society for Parapsychology 1, 29‑32. (in Japanese)

Musso, J. R. and Granero, M. (1972) Experimento de percepción extrasensorial con dibujos ocultos. Revista Argentina de Psicología 3 (11), 121‑147. (English version. An ESP drawings experiment with concealed drawings. JP 41, 1973, 143 ‑149.)

Musso, J. R. (1973) Parapsychology in Argentina. In Angoff, A. and Shapin, B. (eds.) Parapsychology Today: A Geographíc View, 144‑172. New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Novillo Pauli, E. (19 75) Educación en parapsicología. Cuadernos de Parapsicología 8, 3‑5,

Parra, A. (1990) Historia de la Parapsicología en la Argentina. Buenos Aires: privately printed.

Parra, A. (1992) Parapsychologie in Argentinien: Geschichte und Perspektiven. Grenzgebiete der Wissenschaft 41, 353‑359.

Parra,A. (1995) Formación, información y desinformaciónn en parapsicología: su situación en Argentina. Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal (in press).

Rebaudi, 0. (1899) Elementos de Magnetismo Experimental y Curativo. Madrid: Biblioteca La Irradiacion.

Rueda, S. (1991) Parapsychology in the Ibero‑American world: past and present developments. JP 55, 175‑208.

Serie, P. (1910) Elocuencia de los Hechos. La Plata: Luz del Porvenir.

Villanueva, J. (1990) Correspondence. JP 54, 191‑192.

Villanueva, J. (1992) Irma Maggi, 1882‑1972, una psíquica notable: conmernorando el vigésimo de su fallecimiento. Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal 3, 62‑67.

Subir

List of English´s articles

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2010). Unusual perceptual experiences and ESP under psychomanteum stimulation: Imagery/hallucination proneness and schizotypal personality measures. Australian Journal of Parapsycholog (in press).

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2010). Aura vision as a hallucinatory experience: Its relation to fantasy proneness, absorption, and other perceptual maladjustments Journal of Mental Imagery, 34 (3&4) (in press).

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2010) Out-of-body experiences and hallucinatory experiences: A psychological approach. Imagination, Cognition and Personality (in press).

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ESPINOZA PAUL, LUIS (2010). Nocturnal hallucinatory experiences and paranormal/anomalous experiences: Exploring links with schizotypy, dissociation, absorption and fantasy proneness in Argentine and Peruvian groups. European Journal of Parapsychology (in press).

PARRA ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA JORGE (2010). Unusual perceptual experiences and ESP under psychomanteum stimulation: Imagery/hallucination proneness and schizotypal personality measures. Australian Journal of Parapsychology (in press).

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ESPINOZA PAUL, LUIS (2010). Nocturnal hallucinatory experiences and paranormal/anomalous experiences: Exploring links with schizotypy, dissociation, absorption and fantasy proneness in argentine and peruvian groups. European Journal of Parapsychology (in press).

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ESPINOZA PAUL, LUIS (2010). Extrasensorial experiences and hallucinatory experience: Comparision between three non-clinical samples linked with a psychological measures. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (in press).

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2010). Out-of-body experiences and hallucinatory experiences: A psychological approach. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality (in press).

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2009). Psychics vs. Non-Psychics in “Face-to-Face” and “Remote” Token-Object Reading Conditions. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 9 (1), pp. 57-69

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2009). An experimental study with ordinary people for testing “sacred” objects through psi detection. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 73.1 (894), 41-49.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2008). Reading Faces: An experimental exploration of psychometry using photographs and names. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 8(1),  pp. 47-57.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2008). Aura vision as a hallucinatory experience: Its relation to fantasy proneness, absorption, and other perceptual maladjustments. En S. Sherwood (Ed.), Proceedings of the 51st Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 166-175). West Downs Centre, The University of Winchester: Winchester, England.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2007). “Token-object” effect and medical diagnosis: An experimental study. En J.Palmer (Ed.), Proceedings of the 50th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 95-102). Holiday Inn Hotel Halifax, NS, Canadá.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2007). Comparing psychics and non-psychics through a “token-object” forced choise ESP test. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 71.2(887), 80-90.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2006). ESP under the ganzfeld, in contrast with the induction of relaxation as a psi-conducive state. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 6(2), 167-186.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2006). “Seeing and feeling ghosts”: Absorption, fantasy proneness, and healthy schizotypy as predictors of crisis apparition experiences. Journal of Parapsychology, 70, pp. 357-372.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2006). Exploring psychomanteum as a psi-conducive state of consciousness. En C.Simmonds-Moore (Ed.), Proceedings of the 49th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 141-152). Hasselbacken Hotel Stockholm, Suecia.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & ARGIBAY, JUAN CARLOS (2006). Comparing a free response test using an object and without object condition: First study exploring the “token-object” effect on an ungifted sample. En C. Simmonds-Moore (Ed.), Proceedings of the 49th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 299-307). Hasselbacken Hotel Stockholm, Suecia.

GÓMEZ MONTANELLI, DANIEL E. & PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2002-2005). Are spontaneous anomalous/paranormal experiences disturbing?: A survey among under-graduate stundents. International Journal of Parapsychology, 13, 1-14.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2004). Are musical themes better than visual images as ESP-targets? An experimental study using the ganzfeld technique. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 4(2), 114-127.

GÓMEZ MONTANELLI, DANIEL & PARRA, ALEJANDRO (2004). A clinical approach to the emotional processing of anomalous/paranormal experiences in group therapy. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 68.3, 876, 129-142.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2003). Personality factors and psi-ganzfeld sessions: A replication and extension. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 3(2), 159-174.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO & VILLANUEVA, JORGE (2003). Personality factors and ESP during ganzfeld session. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 67.1, 870, 26-36.

PARRA, ALEJANDRO  & GÓMEZ MONTANELLI, DANIEL (2000). Conflictive psi experiences: A survey with implications for clinical parapsychology. En F. Steinkamp (Ed.), Proceedings of the 43th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp.178-191). Freiburg, West Germany: Parapsychological Association.

 

VolverSubir

INSTITUTO DE PSICOLOGIA PARANORMAL - Salta 2015 (C1137ACQ) - Buenos Aires - República Argentina
Telfax: (+5411) 4305-6724 | (15) 6161-1376 - rapp@fibertel.com.ar